WilkiLeaks: Will The Public Remember?

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WikiLeaks: Will the Public Remember?

 

 

Steven Navarro, Chris Jenkins, Michele Kuzila, Robert Zaremba

Crystal Muthleb, Ryan Helms, and Michaelena Creamer

 

Eastern Michigan University

 Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Criminology

April 13, 2011

 

Authors’ Note

This "media-ography" is submitted as part of a graduate research group project for Dr. Gregg Barak’s CRM 650:  Crime, Media and Justice.

 

 

Table of Contents

Abstract 4

Introduction. 5

Methods. 8

Data Analysis and Summary. 9

Discussions. 17

Conclusion. 20

References. 22

A Final Reflection on Doing this Group Project 23

Appendix A..

Web-Based Internet Sites: The Washington Post, American Civil Liberties Union, LawFare. 24

Appendix B..

Liberal and Conservative Blogs. 38

Appendix C

Cable Television: CNN, Fox News, MSNBC. 5

Appendix D..

News Magazines: Time, Newsweek, and U.S. News and World Report.

Appendix E.

Newspaper: Wall Street Journal.

Appendix F.

Newspapers: New York Times and New York Post 108

Appendix G..

Newspapers: Chicago Tribune & LA Times.

 

 

 

 

 

Tables and Figures

Table 1: Overall Data by Media Outlet, Social Actor and Tone. 11

Table 2: Old and New Media – Social Actors and Tones. 12

Table 3: Old Media by Outlet, Social Actor and Tone. 13

Table 4: New Media by Outlet, Social Actor and Tone. 14

Figure 1: Old and New Media. 16

Figure 2: Tone. 16

Figure 3: Tone: New Media by Affiliation. 17


 

Abstract

The WikLeaks saga is perhaps one of the more interesting subjects in present day studies of crime, media and justice. However, research on this topic and within this discipline is limited, if not non-existent. The purpose of this research was to examine the content of various forms of media with the ongoing WikiLeaks story. We seek to identify the type of social actor frames used to present the story to the public and explore the differences in content and frames between “old” or established media sources (newspapers, magazines, etc.) and “new” media sources (blogs, more recent television sources). As a secondary concern, we ask if this content is framed in a manner consistent enough to result in the creation of a moral panic according to Cohen’s 1972 model. A quasi-content analysis of 360 media sources reveals that 77.2% did not represent WikiLeaks as a folk devil, although nearly half of the content examined depicted WikiLeaks and/or Julian Assange in a negative manner. As such, an assumption is made that a moral panic is not present, nor was there a media-wide attempt at the creation of one. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

In the study of the intersection of crime & media studies, there is perhaps a no more fascinating subject than that of the ongoing WikiLeaks saga. WikiLeaks, a non-profit online publisher of leaked documents from anonymous whistleblowers, has found itself in the center of a highly divisive international debate about transparency in business and government versus corporate and government’s right to keep secrets. The controversy stems primarily from two highly controversial raw document caches published on the WikiLeaks website in 2010. One, a string of military intelligence reports from US troops in Afghanistan dubbed the “Afghan War Diary”, and the other, a series of highly sensitive diplomatic cables from various government embassies around the world.  Fundamentally, WikiLeaks serves as an innovative, secure, and anonymous process for sources to leak information to the public. Its founder, Julian Assange, has said that WikiLeaks "creates a better society for all people ... [producing] reduced corruption and stronger democracies in all society’s institutions, including government, corporations and other organizations.” (WikiLeaks, 2011) The affected governments have predictably taken the opposite position, saying that the leaked documents have harmed international relations and compromised undercover agents. It is notable that Assange, shortly after the dust-up of the leaked cables, found himself facing charges of sexual assault and possible extradition from the U.K. to Switzerland to stand trial. 

Currently, WikiLeaks is among the most preeminent issue in media studies. Its continued existence or eventual demise has the potential to change the landscape of media and internet publishing, the use of confidential sources, and the treatment of whistleblowers (and their facilitators) internationally. As a social issue, the case of WikiLeaks is complex with issues of moral ambiguity and individual perception of events, and is subject to ideological and political leanings. Therefore, a content analysis of WikiLeaks’ media coverage during this time of large-scale interest and coverage may reveal some of the reporting tendencies of media sources in regard to framing and tone, as well as ideological underpinnings. By examining the content of various forms of media with the ongoing WikiLeaks story, we seek to identify the type of frames used to present the story to the public. As a secondary concern, we ask if this content is framed in a manner consistent enough to result in the creation of a moral panic.

In analyzing the coverage of WikiLeaks, we wanted to explore the differences in content and frames between “old” or established media sources (newspapers, magazines, etc.) and “new” media sources (blogs, more recent television sources). As an expansion of the established media apparatus, new media sources are gaining credibility and viewership. By 2014, it is estimated that 150 million Americans, 60% of the U.S. internet population, will read blogs on a monthly basis (eMarketer, 2010). How these new media sources differ in their framing and coverage of the WikiLeaks story is of particular concern for this paper.

Central to our research question is the concept of news framing introduced by Tuchman (1978) to allude to media sources and the production of news stories. “Framing refers to the way an issue is presented to the public. Framing involves calling attention to certain aspects of an issue while ignoring or obscuring other elements” (Bonn, 2010: 23). Colloquially known as spin, framing can have a demonstrable effect on the contextual understanding of the exact same event, depending on which frames are placed within the story. In the case of Julian Assange, his sexual assault proceedings can be presented either as the man who leaked government secrets also turning out to be a sick, sexual deviant, or as the whistleblower transformed into a political target, resulting in trumped up charges at the behest of irate international leaders. The tone of the stories is of particular importance as well. Tone refers to the ideological leaning of a story’s coverage: in other words if the frame or presentation of the story is pro-WikiLeaks, anti-WikiLeaks, or is simply neutral. We are specifically concerned with identifying, counting, and analyzing the different frames of these stories to compare them between media sources for frequency and overall trend.

The media has the ability to shape public discourse through their coverage of particular news stories. Bonn (2010) argued that media outlets are core mechanisms in setting the agenda for public discourse. Specifically, they are able to transfer the salience of an issue from the press to the public based upon their coverage, or lack of coverage. Furthermore, Bonn wrote of a second level of agenda setting. This level refers to the influence of news media’s coverage of actors or issues and the public’s perception of these issues or individuals. It is these concepts that make the argument for the importance of a news content analysis, and the framing of that coverage. Singular news framing can shape or sway public opinion, and to a large degree create ideological consensus.

            Framing can furthermore play a major role in the creation of what Cohen (1972) calls a moral panic. Moral panic can be defined as a "condition or situation in which public fears and state interventions greatly exceed the objective threat posed to society by a particular group that is claimed to be responsible for the condition” (Bonn, 2010, 5).  In sum, an individual or group becomes socially defined as being responsible for creating a threat to society.  This scapegoating is also known as manifesting a “folk devil” and is integral in the creation of moral panic. A folk devil is “stripped of all favorable characteristics and imparted with exclusively negative ones” (Goode & Ben-Yehuda, 1994, 28). The threat posed by the folk devil is greatly exaggerated or distorted by other actors, including the news media, to serve as the object of public scorn for the moral panic. Because moral panics cannot exist without a folk devil, it is, it is imperative that the WikiLeaks organization and/or Julian Assange be subjected to that role. This study will include an examination of news stories that vilify the WikiLeaks founder or the organization itself. Because of the powerful forces involved in the WikiLeaks saga, this research fits best into the context of the elite-engineered model of moral panic. An elite-engineered moral panic occurs when an elite group deliberately undertakes a campaign to generate and sustain concern or fear on the part of the public over an issue that is not as intensely threatening as it is presented (Bonn, 2010). Given that the goals of WikiLeaks are largely antithetical to those in power, and that its continued existence is a threat to secretive states, we feel it is worthwhile to explore this moral panic model. Through our analysis of the Wikileaks coverage, we aim to discover whether the framing of these stories is such that it is aimed at, or apt to, create moral panic amongst the public.

As an aside, there is a branch to the WikiLeaks story in the fate of Private First Class Bradley Manning, allegedly the leaker of the Afghan War Diary documents. In selecting articles for this analysis we chose not to include stories or articles primarily concerned with Manning. Since they most often did not concern WikiLeaks as an entity, we found them largely irrelevant to this study.

Methods

            A content analysis was conducted to provide an overview of the media coverage of WikiLeaks and Julian Assange.  From November 2010 to February 2011, three hundred sixty articles/editorials, blogs, newsletters, and news videos were collected and analyzed from various media outlets.  These media outlets included: New York Times, New York Post, Los Angeles Times, Chicago Tribune, Wall Street Journal, Time Magazine, Newsweek, US News and World Report, Washington Post, Liberal Blogs, Conservative Blogs, MSNBC, FOX, CNN, ACLU Online, and Lawfare Blog.  The media collected was then separated into five categories based on the dominant social actor portrayed.  The five social actors used were first identified by Cohen (1972) as:

1) Folk devils: those individuals who are socially defined or alleged to be responsible for                         creating a threat to society.

2) Rule or law enforcers: the police, the prosecutors and the military

3) The media: news media coverage, specifically those which exaggerate the threat of folk devils/ attempt to create a moral panic

4) Politicians: those who operate within the public sphere and act as the protectors of moral high ground

5) The public: public agitation, concern, and outrage over the actions of folk devils

(Bonn, 2010)

 When multiple social actors were present, the most dominant actor was used for categorization.  In addition to categorizing media by the dominant social actor, the media was also classified as having a Positive, Negative, or Neutral tone.  Positive toned media took a pro-WikiLeaks and/or pro-Assange stance; negative, an anti-WikiLeaks and/or anti-Assange stance; and neutral, an informational, unbiased position.

Data Analysis and Summary

As previously discussed, the data was collected by applying a quasi-content analysis coding procedure. Overall, 16 media channels were examined for articles/editorials, blogs, newsletters, and news video with a relationship to WikiLeaks and/or Julian Assange. The data sources (N=360) represent a broad range of web-based media providers, such as newspapers, magazines, blogs, and cable news. Even though the majority of the media channels are American based; it is appropriate to consider the world-wide range and popularity of these outlets since the source material is web-based. The newspaper and cable news organizations were considered for their readership volume and geographic location, such that spatial influences could be reflected upon as well. Liberal and conservative cable news outlets and blogs were identified and analyzed as well. Additionally, the sources were categorized as old media (N=198) and new media (N=162) to determine if one form of media appeared more influential in promoting a moral panic and/or designating WikiLeaks/Julian Assange as a folk devil.

Tables 1 – 4 provide an overall interpretation of the collected data (respectively – overall group; new and old media; old media only; and new media only).  The overall data reveals the media depicting WikiLeaks/Assange as a folk devil in 32.8% of the sources as well as framing him negatively in 48.3% of the sources.  An assumption can be made that these two variables are related. Sources with neutral or positive tones do not present the information in such a way that would result in the folk devil label which characterizes the folk devil label as a dependent variable contingent on the use of frames.  Only 14.2% of this body of media had ‘politician’ as a dominant social actor which diminishes the relevance of the ‘elite-engineered” model of moral panic to WikiLeaks. 

The data analysis for old and new media provided interesting statistical trends (Table 2). Old media provided 55% of the data, in which 37.8% of the data sources categorized WikiLeaks/Julian Assange as a folk devil. Conversely, 26.5% of new media placed WikiLeaks/Julian Assange in the folk devil category. The most prevalent category for new media


Table 1: Overall Data by Media Outlet, Social Actor and Tone

Media Outlet

Social Actor

Tone

 

Folk Devil

Politician

Rule/Law Enforcer

Media

Public

Totals

Positive

Negative

Neutral

Total

Old Media

(N)

(%)

(N)

(%)

(N)

(%)

(N)

(%)

(N)

(%)

(N)

(%)

(N)

(%)

(N)

(%)

(N)

(%)

(N)

(%)

NY Times

11

14.7%

8

26.7%

2

8.3%

4

7.4%

2

13.3%

27

13.6%

1

5.6%

24

22.6%

2

2.7%

27

13.6%

NY Post

29

38.7%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

1

6.7%

30

15.2%

1

5.6%

29

27.4%

0

0.0%

30

15.2%

LA Times

0

0.0%

2

6.7%

2

8.3%

8

14.8%

0

0.0%

12

6.1%

3

16.7%

3

2.8%

6

8.1%

12

6.1%

Chicago Tribune

3

4.0%

3

10.0%

2

8.3%

8

14.8%

2

13.3%

18

9.1%

2

11.1%

8

7.5%

8

10.8%

18

9.1%

Wall Street Journal

18

24.0%

7

23.3%

6

25.0%

15

27.8%

2

13.3%

48

24.2%

1

5.6%

16

15.1%

31

41.9%

48

24.2%

Time

2

2.7%

0

0.0%

2

8.3%

2

3.7%

1

6.7%

7

3.5%

2

11.1%

1

0.9%

4

5.4%

7

3.5%

Newsweek

3

4.0%

2

6.7%

0

0.0%

9

16.7%

4

26.7%

18

9.1%

5

27.8%

5

4.7%

8

10.8%

18

9.1%

US News and World Report

6

8.0%

5

16.7%

3

12.5%

8

14.8%

3

20.0%

25

12.6%

2

11.1%

14

13.2%

9

12.2%

25

12.6%

The Washington Post

3

4.0%

3

10.0%

7

29.2%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

13

6.6%

1

5.6%

6

5.7%

6

8.1%

13

6.6%

Total

75

37.9%

30

15.2%

24

12.1%

54

27.3%

15

7.6%

198

100.0%

18

9.1%

106

53.5%

74

37.4%

198

100.0%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

New Media

Folk Devil

Politician

Rule/Law Enforcer

Media

Public

Totals

Positive

Negative

Neutral

Total

Liberal Blogs

1

2.3%

11

52.4%

0

0.0%

10

15.6%

17

63.0%

39

24.1%

16

37.2%

10

14.7%

13

25.5%

39

24.1%

Conservative Blogs

18

41.9%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

2

3.1%

6

22.2%

26

16.0%

0

0.0%

23

33.8%

3

5.9%

26

16.0%

MSNBC

3

7.0%

5

23.8%

1

14.3%

20

31.3%

1

3.7%

30

18.5%

15

34.9%

6

8.8%

9

17.6%

30

18.5%

FOX

15

34.9%

1

4.8%

0

0.0%

14

21.9%

0

0.0%

30

18.5%

1

2.3%

20

29.4%

9

17.6%

30

18.5%

CNN

6

14.0%

3

14.3%

0

0.0%

18

28.1%

3

11.1%

30

18.5%

4

9.3%

9

13.2%

17

33.3%

30

18.5%

ACLU Website

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

3

42.9%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

3

1.9%

3

7.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

3

1.9%

Lawfare Blog

0

0.0%

1

4.8%

3

42.9%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

4

2.5%

4

9.3%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

4

2.5%

Total

43

26.5%

21

13.0%

7

4.3%

64

39.5%

27

16.7%

162

100.0%

43

26.5%

68

42.0%

51

31.5%

162

100.0%

Old & New Media Total

118

32.8%

51

14.2%

31

8.6%

118

32.8%

42

11.7%

360

100.0%

61

16.9%

174

48.3%

125

34.7%

360

100.0%

 

 

Table 2: Old and New Media – Social Actors and Tones

Media Outlet

Social Actor

 

Folk Devil

Politician

Rule/Law Enforcer

Media

Public

Total

Old & New Media Totals

M (N)

M2 (%)

M (N)

M2 (%)

M (N)

M2 (%)

M (N)

M2 (%)

M (N)

M2 (%)

M (N)

M2 (%)

Old Media

75

63.6%

30

58.8%

24

77.4%

54

27.3%

15

35.7%

198

55.0%

New Media

43

36.4%

21

41.2%

7

22.6%

64

39.5%

27

64.3%

162

45.0%

Total

118

32.8%

51

14.2%

31

8.6%

118

33.4%

42

11.7%

360

100.0%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tone

 

 

 

 

 

Positive

Negative

Neutral

Total

 

 

 

 

Old & New Media Totals

M (N)

M2 (%)

M (N)

M2 (%)

M (N)

M2 (%)

M (N)

M2 (%)

 

 

 

 

Old Media

18

29.5%

106

60.9%

74

59.2%

198

55.0%

 

 

 

 

New Media

43

70.5%

68

39.1%

51

40.8%

162

45.0%

 

 

 

 

Total

61

16.9%

174

48.3%

125

34.7%

360

100.0%

 

 

 

 

M = Media type

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

M2 (%) = M (N) / Total (unweighted)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

M2 (%) Total = M (N) Total / 360

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 3: Old Media by Outlet, Social Actor and Tone

Media Outlet

Social Actor

 

Folk Devil

Politician

Rule/Law Enforcer

Media

Public

Total

Old Media

S (N)

S1 (%)

S (N)

S1 (%)

S (N)

S1 (%)

S (N)

S1 (%)

S (N)

S1 (%)

S (N)

S2 (%)

NY Times

11

40.7%

8

29.6%

2

7.4%

4

14.8%

2

7.4%

27

13.6%

NY Post

29

96.7%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

1

3.3%

30

15.2%

LA Times

0

0.0%

2

16.7%

2

16.7%

8

66.7%

0

0.0%

12

6.1%

Chicago Tribune

3

16.7%

3

16.7%

2

11.1%

8

44.4%

2

11.1%

18

9.1%

Wall Street Journal

18

37.5%

7

14.6%

6

12.5%

15

31.3%

2

4.2%

48

24.2%

Time

2

28.6%

0

0.0%

2

28.6%

2

28.6%

1

14.3%

7

3.5%

Newsweek

3

16.7%

2

11.1%

0

0.0%

9

50.0%

4

22.2%

18

9.1%

US News and World Report

6

24.0%

5

20.0%

3

12.0%

8

32.0%

3

12.0%

25

12.6%

The Washington Post

3

23.1%

3

23.1%

7

53.8%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

13

6.6%

Total

75

37.9%

30

15.2%

24

12.1%

54

27.3%

15

7.6%

198

100.0%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Media Source

Tone

 

 

 

 

 

Positive

Negative

Neutral

Total

 

 

 

 

Old Media

S (N)

S1 (%)

S (N)

S1 (%)

S (N)

S1 %)

S (N)

S2 (%)

 

 

 

 

NY Times

1

3.7%

24

88.9%

2

7.4%

27

13.6%

 

 

 

 

NY Post

1

3.3%

29

96.7%

0

0.0%

30

15.2%

 

 

 

 

LA Times

3

25.0%

3

25.0%

6

50.0%

12

6.1%

 

 

 

 

Chicago Tribune

2

11.1%

8

44.4%

8

44.4%

18

9.1%

 

 

 

 

Wall Street Journal

1

2.1%

16

33.3%

31

64.6%

48

24.2%

S = Source, Article, or Blog

 

S1 (%) = S (N) / S (N) Total (for individual media source)

S2 (%) = S (N) Total (by individual media source) / 198

 

 

 

 

Time

2

28.6%

1

14.3%

4

57.1%

7

3.5%

 

 

 

 

Newsweek

5

27.8%

5

27.8%

8

44.4%

18

9.1%

 

 

 

 

US News and World Report

2

8.0%

14

56.0%

9

36.0%

25

12.6%

 

 

 

 

The Washington Post

1

7.7%

6

46.2%

6

46.2%

13

6.6%

 

 

 

 

Total

18

9.1%

106

53.5%

74

37.4%

198

100.0%

 

 

 

 

                           

Table 4: New Media by Outlet, Social Actor and Tone

Media Outlet

Social Actor

 

Folk Devil

Politician

Rule/Law Enforcer

Media

Public

Total

New Media

S (N)

S1 (%)

S (N)

S1 (%)

S (N)

S1 (%)

S (N)

S1 (%)

S (N)

S1 (%)

(N)

S2 (%)

Liberal Blogs

1

2.6%

11

28.2%

0

0.0%

10

25.6%

17

43.6%

39

24.1%

Conservative Blogs

18

69.2%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

2

7.7%

6

23.1%

26

16.0%

MSNBC

3

10.0%

5

16.7%

1

3.3%

20

66.7%

1

3.3%

30

18.5%

FOX

15

50.0%

1

3.3%

0

0.0%

14

46.7%

0

0.0%

30

18.5%

CNN

6

20.0%

3

10.0%

0

0.0%

18

60.0%

3

10.0%

30

18.5%

ACLU Website

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

3

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

3

1.9%

Lawfare Blog

0

0.0%

1

25.0%

3

75.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

4

2.5%

Total

43

26.5%

21

13.0%

7

4.3%

64

39.5%

27

16.7%

162

100.0%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tone

 

 

 

 

 

Positive

Negative

Neutral

Total

 

 

 

 

New Media

S (N)

S1 (%)

S (N)

S1 (%)

S (N)

S1 (%)

S (N)

S2 (%)

 

 

 

 

Liberal Blogs

16

41.0%

10

25.6%

13

33.3%

39

24.1%

 

 

 

 

Conservative Blogs

0

0.0%

23

88.5%

3

11.5%

26

16.0%

 

 

 

 

MSNBC

15

50.0%

6

20.0%

9

30.0%

30

18.5%

 

 

 

 

FOX

1

3.3%

20

66.7%

9

30.0%

30

18.5%

 

 

 

 

CNN

4

13.3%

9

30.0%

17

56.7%

30

18.5%

 

 

 

 

ACLU Website

3

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

3

1.9%

 

 

 

 

Lawfare Blog

4

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

4

2.5%

 

 

 

 

Total

43

26.5%

68

42.0%

51

31.5%

162

100.0%

 

 

 

 

S = Source, Article, or Blog

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S1 (%) = (N) / S (N) Total for individual media source

 

 

 

 

 

 

S2 (%) = S (N)Ttotal (by individual media source) / N=162

 

 

 

 

 

 

                             

was the media category at just less than 40%. The cable news organizations dominated the media category with 57.8% of the source data within this category.

Interestingly, when old and new media were combined, the folk devil category and media category were balanced at 118 sources each (Figure 1), or 32.8%. Several assumptions can be made about this observation.  With the concepts of agenda setting in mind, it could be argued that the reason the folk devil category and the media category are equalized is because the media played a significant role in framing and constructing the social reality of WikiLeaks and Julian Assange as a folk devil. Perhaps this argument could be further supported by exploring public opinion polls on WikiLeaks and Assange. Furthermore, WikiLeaks might be seen as an effort by older media outlets to preserve their own survival against the perceived threat posed by the new media.

This leads into the analysis of the tone expressed by the various media sources and social actors towards WikiLeaks and Julian Assange. Overall, nearly half of the 360 data sources examined relayed a negative tone towards WikiLeaks and/or Assange (Figure 2). Seventeen percent had a positive tone and the remainder was neutral. Not surprisingly, the tone of the new media outlets reflected their conservative or liberal affiliation (Figure 3). Specifically, the liberal sources reflected a pro-WikiLeaks and/or Assange framing through the application of First and Fourth Amendment rights, what counts as journalism, and/ or how we recognize the costs and benefits of the end of more customary models of journalistic self-regulation in the age of the networked public sphere. The conservative sources generally portrayed WikiLeaks with negative frames associated with terrorism, anti-Americanism, and threatening to national security. These frames, often support the position of the government applying laws and legislative measures, such as the Espionage Act of 1917, that criminalize the WikiLeaks organization and Julian Assange.  Similarly, Assange has been depicted as a treasonous, hubristic or an arrogant individual. The difference in the specific negative frames between liberal and conservative sources is consistent with the differences in the depiction of WikiLeaks as a folk devil.

 

                 Figures 1 through 3 are available upon request to greggbarak@yahoo.com  

Figure 1: Old and New Media 

Figure 2: Tones

Figure 3: Tone: New Media by Affiliation

Liberal = Liberal Blogs, MSNBC, ACLU Online & Lawfare Blog; N=76

Conservative = Conservative blogs & Fox News; N=56

Neither = CNN; N=30

 

Discussions           

The goals of the content analysis were to determine:

·      If this body had depicted WikiLeaks as a folk devil,

·      If the framing was consistent enough to result in the creation of a moral panic,

·      To identify the kinds of frames and tones used to present the WikiLeaks story to the public

In view of the fact that a majority of the media content, 77.2%, did not represent WikiLeaks as a folk devil, it would be safe to assume that a moral panic is not present, nor was there a media-wide attempt at the creation of one.  On the other hand, a few media outlets stood out in their almost completely negative depiction of WikiLeaks.  Further analysis could be done in the future to study these outlets as well as other political motivations in the media.  

This declaration only represents the limited information used in this research, and is dependent on the hypotheses and assumptions that have been made.  A more complete understanding of the media requires more information and better methods of research.  As a result of the limitations of our study, we emphasize the following improvements and critiques that could improve the validity of our study as well as future research:

1) Developing consistent data sampling methods

§  Is it representative of all media?

§  Right vs. Left discrepancies?

§  What media have we left out?

2) Examining the media sources’ influence over public opinion

§  For example: how many people read a certain article or watched a specific television program?  If the public doesn’t watch it, they are not influenced; therefore, definitional dictated, moral panic is impossible. On the other hand, if the volume of viewers a program receives greatly exceeds other similar programs, the influence it has on the general public would be substantially heightened.

3) Comparing the coverage of WikiLeaks to other issues and topics

§  Our study may be composed of 360 different media sources, but how does that compare to other topics of interest?  The influence a topic has on the public positively correlates with the amount of coverage it receives, otherwise, the theoretical foundations that a moral panic is built on crumble.

4) Identifying the dominate social actor

§  Who is depicting WikiLeaks as a social actor?

§  Where are the media sources getting their information?

§  Each article has potential to represent an aspect of every social actor. For example, MSNBC (Media) cites Joe Biden (Vice President - Politician) who claims WikiLeaks is a threat to the safety of our country (Folk Devil).  As a result, Biden states that they are weighing the prospects criminal action.  This is followed up with an interview of a prosecutor (Law Enforcer) who is questioned on the validity of criminalizing WikiLeaks for leaking the cables while a million people (public) watched the program.  All of the social actors are present in this illustration, and they all need to be taken into account.

5) Lacking consistency with specific frames           

§  Specific frames range from rapist to sexual deviant and treason to criminal.  Inconsistency has required us to leave these specific frames out of the statistical analysis.

§  Setting these frames before an analysis is conducted is a key to success, just as   Bonn examined how often Bush used certain phrases in Mass Deception Moral Panic and the U.S. War on Iraq (2010).

6) Analyzing content differently

§  Six people analyzed the various media sources’ content (See Appendix). Inter-rater reliability was not verified and would have been complicated by the number researchers interpreting the content. Thus, developing a specific data coding instrument and utilizing fewer content analysts would add reliability to the empirical data.

Conclusion

Due to the power and collaboration that politicians and the media share, a truthful discussion about the content of WikiLeaks’ war logs and cables is restricted as this topic has been subjected to constant reframing. The WikiLeaks debate spawned into many interconnected but separate issues. Was there collusion between the elite to portray WikiLeaks as an inherent evil, a cause to a future disaster, or more?  Could it have been systematic or structural forces that led different media outlets to take such contradicting positions, or could the media actually just be voicing their legitimate opinions?   These questions, that could be seen to arise from the content analysis, validate the further study and investigation of WikiLeaks and the media, and give valuable direction as to where further research could lead. 

As for the strengths presented in this research, the inconclusive results, at least, give us a fairly good idea of the media and their stance towards WikiLeaks. A moral panic includes more than the just media, but it specifically takes into account the public’s levels of concern and fear.  The combination of the concept of framing and the institution of the media assessed in this study are one step toward a full illustration of the WikiLeaks narrative.  There is guidance for future research of the media that can be derived from the different trends available in this study that promote the expansion of media studies, the understanding of frames, and the extent of the relationships between the media and other social actors. 

Since the Afghanistan War Diary was first started in 2007, WikiLeaks may not have “cracked the world open,” (WikiLeaks, 2011) in the way the organization had wished, but it has had an immense impact on the global community and the inter-related study of criminology and the media. In a time and place where investigative journalism has almost vanished WikiLeaks has reenergized the trend. WikiLeaks has brought into question if the press is free and open. What’s needed is much more vigorous conversation of how the Internet can become a truly free public space and a global village where everybody can articulate their ideas and opinions. To be more clear-cut, we must transition to an Internet whose core design is really free of government or corporate power, as decentralized and uncontainable as life itself (Sifry, 2011).


References

Bonn, S. A. (2010). Mass Deception: Moral Panic and the U.S. War on Iraq. Rutgers

            University Press: New Jersey.

 

Cohen, S. (1972). Folk devils and moral panics: The creation of the mods and rockers.

            MacGibbon & Kee: London.

 

Goode, E., & Ben-Yehuda, N. (1994).Moral panics: the social construction of deviance.

            Blackwell: Cambridge, MA.

 

Philips, L. E. (2009). US Internet Users.eMarketer. Retrieved April 10, 2011 from

            http://www.emarketer.com/Reports/All/Emarketer_2000561.aspx

 

Sifry, M. L. (2011). In the Age of WikiLeaks, the End of Secrecy?.The Nation. Retrieved April

10, 2011 from http://www.thenation.com/article/158988/age-wikileaks-end-secrecy?

 

 

Tuchman, G. (1978). Making news: A study in the social construction of reality. Free Press: New

            York.

 

WikiLeaks. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.wikileaks.ch/About.html


 

A Final Reflection on Doing this Group Project                       

As globalization pushes us towards a more integrated criminology, this project provided us the opportunity to incorporate the different backgrounds and experiences of all the group members.  While all of us are students of criminology, we bring different specialties to the table including, but not limited to: sociology, psychology, political science, economics, history, and both theoretical criminological and practical applications.  Working on this project allowed us to gain knowledge and perspective of areas we otherwise would not have incorporated into our individual work.  It is this importance of interaction and collaboration that fuels globalization and integrated criminology alike.

 

 


 

Appendix A

Web-Based Internet Sites: The Washington Post, American Civil Liberties Union, LawFare

Overview

During the latter months of year 2010 and continuing into present day, the WikiLeaks

organization, Julian Assange and Private First Class Bradley Manning have spawned extensive

media coverage. This summary provides an overview of three web-based media and/or legal

internet sites: 1) The Washington Post, 2) The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), and 3)

Lawfare. A content analysis was performed on the articles, news releases, editorials, opinion-

editorials and/or blogs associated with these websites.

                  The summation format includes the title, author, date published, website address, date accessed, media section or type, tone assessment of the narrative, the frame or type of social actor, and a brief summary. In particular, Stanley Cohen’s Folk Devils and Moral Panics (1972) identified five social actors involved in a moral panic; those being – folk devils, rule or law enforcers, media, politicians and the public. Although several of the articles could be classified into more than one frame, the dominant frame was the only one considered in this analysis. Finally, the dominant tone assessment was considered as well. Logically, many articles which were found to be anti-Assange/WikiLeaks, inherently were pro-American law or government. Similarly, if the tone was a dominant government, then anti-Assange/WikiLeaks was being implied.

The Washington Post

1.  Prosecute Wikileaks, then reform our espionage laws

By Jeffery H. Smith

November 30, 2010

Source: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/11/29/AR2010112904326.html

Date Accessed: 2/9/2011

Media Section: Opinion-Editorial

Tone: Anti-Assange/WikiLeaks

Frame: Folk Devil (Assange/WikiLeaks)

Summary:

Assange’s release of sensitive United States diplomatic cables violates the law and Assange

should be punished. Assange’s actions were reckless, callous, irrational and harmful to American

lives. Furthermore, the current Espionage Law should be modernized to mirror the technology

advancements of today’s society.

2.  WikiLeaks off-limits to federal workers without clearance, memo says

By Ed O’Keefe

December 5, 2010

Source: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/12/05/AR2010120504266.html

Date Accessed: February 9, 2011

Media Section: Articles

Tone: Dominant government/Anti-WikiLeaks

Frame: Politician

Summary:

Federal workers and contractors were cautioned by the Obama administration officials to “steer

clear of WikiLeaks.” Officials warned, “Classified information, whether or not already posted on

public Web sites or disclosed to the media, remains classified, and must be treated as such by

federal employees and contractors, until it is declassified by an appropriate U.S. government

authority.” Employees with access to classified information networks have been restricted in the

use of removable media such as flash drives and CD’s.

3.  Don’t charge WikiLeaks

December 11, 2010

Source: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/12/11/AR2010121102564.html

Date Accessed: 3/1/2011

Media Section: Editorial

Tone: Pro-WikiLeaks; Anti-PFC Bradley Manning

Frame: Rule/Law Enforcers

Summary:

Julian Assange may have released national security documents irresponsibly, but he is not a spy

and he is not legally bound to keep secrets. Therefore, he should not be indicted. Before

prosecuting Assange and WikiLeaks, the Espionage law should either be scrapped or reformed.

In terms of charges against PFC Bradley Manning, the administration has properly charged him

since he had sworn to protect secrets.

4.  Arming a dictator

By Michael Gerson

January 7, 2011

Source: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/01/06/AR2011010606057.html?nav=emailpage

Date Accessed: March 1, 2011

Media Section: Opinion-Editorial

Tone: Anti-Assange 

Frame: Folk Devil (Assange/WikiLeaks)

Summary:

WikiLeaks cables exposed the name of a Zimbabwe ruling party member, Tsvangirai, as

supporting imposed economic sanctions to pressure against Robert Mugabe, the country’s leader.

Mugabe’s party is now hunting down traitors and considering charges against Tsvangirai for

collusion with local Zimbabweans and the United States. Gerson writes, “Assange has chosen

the side of Mugabe, apparently without regret. He has provided ammunition to a tyrant as surely

as if he were an arms dealer.”

5.  WikiLeaks’ Julian Assange: ‘Anarchist,’ ‘agitator,’ ‘arrogant’ and a journalist

By Adam L. Penenberg

January 28, 2011

Source: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/01/28/AR2011012803042.html

Date Accessed: March 1, 2011

Media Section: Opinion-Editorial

Tone: Neutral 

Frame: Rule/Law Enforcers

Summary:

Even though Assange has been referred to as an anarchist, agitator, arrogant and anti-American,

Assange claims the work he is doing is journalism. For instance, the WikiLeaks webpage uses

words such as journalism, journalist, not-for-profit media organization on their “About” page. In

the past, American shield laws have protected journalists and journalism which has no clear

definition. The questions become how can prosecutors go after WikiLeaks while sparing the

New York Times, as well as the Guardian in Britain, Germany's Der Spiegel, Le Monde in

France and El Pais in Spain, all of which published articles based on the cache of State

Department cables that WikiLeaks provided? What constitutes “legitimate newsgathering

activities? How do you differentiate between what WikiLeaks does and what the New York

Times does?

6.  Julian Assange’s battles threaten to overshadow WikiLeaks work

By Anthony Faiola

February 6, 2011

Source:  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/02/04/AR2011020405201.html?wprss=rss_world&utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter&utm_campaign=main-twitter

Date Accessed: February 9, 2011

Media Section: Articles

Tone: Anti-Assange

Frame: Folk Devil (Assange)

Summary:

This article dichotomizes Assange’s sexual assault legal matter and the WikiLeaks organization.

Faiola reports that Assange’s combative and increasingly stormy relationship with the media

over his personal legal matters and Daniel Domscheit-Berg, Assange’s second in command

WikiLeak’s partner, book release is at risk of overshadowing the organization’s work.

Recent interviews with Assange have captured him as a cold, callous, single minded individual.

Specifically, during a BBC interview with Assange about the assault allegations, Assange said

the women “found out that they were mutual lovers of mine and they had unprotected sex and

the got into a tizzy about whether there was a possibility of sexually transmitted diseases.”

Assange arrogantly and dismissively said that the women going to the police was “a ridiculous

thing.”

Assange’s callous, unsympathetic character is captured when he comments about why he refused

to redact Afghan war informant names from the Wikleaks cables. Assange states, “Well, they’re

informants. So, if they get killed, they’ve got it coming to them. They deserve it.”

7.  WikiLeaks founder could be charged under Espionage Act

By Ellen Nakashima and Jerry Markon

February 9, 2011

Source: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/11/29/AR2010112905973.html

Date Accessed: March 6, 2011

Media Section: Articles

Tone: Neutral 

Frame: Rule/Law Enforcers

Summary:

Federal authorities are exploring the possibility of charging Julian Assange with violating the

United States’ Espionage Law. Difficulty exists because the 1917 Espionage Act preceded

Supreme Court cases that expanded the First Amendment protections. Furthermore, the United

States would need to convince another country to surrender Assange to American officials.

Attorney General Eric Holder states, “To the extent there are gaps in our laws, we will move to

close those gaps, which is not to say . . . that anybody at this point, because of their citizenship or

their residence, is not a target or a subject of an investigation that's ongoing."

According to former federal prosecutor Baruch Weiss more difficulties arise because proving a

particular cable was dangerous to national security requires the prosecution to disclose more

classified information to explain to a jury the damage the WikiLeaks cable caused.

8.  WikiLeaks, free speech and Twitter come together in Va. court case

By Dana Hedgpeth

February 16, 2011

Source: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/02/15/AR2011021506483.html?hpid=topnews

Date Accessed: March 6, 2011

Media Section: Articles

Tone: Neutral 

Frame: Rule/Law Enforcers

Summary:

This article details the opening arguments in the federal case in which the United States is

attempting to get personal information from the Twitter accounts of Julian Assange; Bradley

Manning; Birgitta Jonsdottir, a former WikiLeaks activits and member of Iceland’s Parliament;

Rop Gonggrijp, a Dutch computer programmer; and Jacob Appelbaum, an American computer

programmer. Their lawyers argued that the data - screen names, mailing addresses, telephone

numbers, credit card and bank account information, and Internet protocol addresses - are

protected by the First Amendment. Prosecutors said the request is a routine part of their criminal

probe.

9.  Australia asks Sweden to give Assange a fair hearing

By Louise Nordstrom, The Associated Press

February 18, 2011

Source: no longer available on The Washington Post

Date Accessed: March 6, 2011

Media Section: Articles

Tone: Neutral 

Frame: Rule/Law Enforcers

Summary:

Australia wants to ensure Julian Assange, Australian native, receives a fair hearing if he’s

extradited from Britian to Sweden on charges of sexual assault/misconduct. A letter by

Australian ambassador Paul Stephens conveys the Australian government’s expectations that

Assange be accorded due process and extended all applicable European and international laws,

including relevant human rights norms.

10.  Julian Assange, WikiLeaks’ founder, must be extradited to Sweden, British judge rules

By Karla Adam

February 24, 2011

Source: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/02/24/AR2011022401154.html?wprss=rss_world

Date Accessed: March 1, 2011

Media Section: Articles

Tone: Anit-Assange (Egoist)

Frame: Rule/Law Enforcers

Summary:

A British judge ruled Assange is to be extradited to Sweden to answer the sexual assault

allegations. Judge Howard Riddle said the Swedish extradition order was proper and does not

violate Assange’s human rights. In response to the court ruling, a defiant Assange said the ruling

was a "result of a European arrest warrant system run amok" and vowed to appeal. Assange told

reporters, “Why is it that I am subject, a nonprofit free-speech activist, to a $360,000 bail? Why

is it that I am kept under electronic house arrest when I have not even been charged in any

country?”

11.  Cable: Moammar Gaddafi offered to help U.S. fight against terrorism

By Douglas Birch, The Associated Press

February 25, 2011

Source: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/02/25/AR2011022504256.html

Date Accessed: March 1, 2011

Media Section: Articles

Tone: Neutral

Frame: Politician

Summary:

A secret United States diplomatic document detailed Moammar Gaddafi’s offer to assist the

United States with a counterterrorism operation in Africa. This proposal followed the removal of

Libya from the United States list of terrorism sponsors. “The State Department message depicts

the Libyan leader as a shrewd and self-serving autocrat, who tried to build a closer relationship

with Washington even as he sought to discourage U.S. military bases and operations in Africa.

At one point, Gadhafi cautioned the U.S. against trusting Arab leaders and suggested he might

play an undefined role in the Mideast, if the U.S. asked.”

12.  U.S. ratchets up pressure on Gaddafi

By Karen DeYoung and Colum Lynch

February 26, 2011

Source: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/02/25/AR2011022506944.html?wprss=rss_print

Date Accessed: March 1, 2011

Media Section: Articles

Tone: Neutral

Frame: Politician

Summary:

This article hints to the United States attempt to save-face from previous agreements between the

United States and Libya. The recent uprising of violence in Libya by Gaddafi’s regime has

caused President Obama to order a block on all fund transfers or withdrawals which apply to the

Libyan government, Gaddafi and all of his children. WikiLeaks had released a cable which

indicates the United States banks manage as much as half-billion dollars in Libyan assets.

13.  Army charges WikiLeaks suspect Bradley Manning with ‘aiding enemy’

By Robert Burns, The Associated Press

March 3, 2011

Source: no longer available on The Washington Post website

 Date Accessed: March 6, 2011

Media Section: Articles

Tone: Anti - PFC Bradley Manning/Anti-WikiLeaks

Frame: Rule/Law Enforcers

Summary:

This article reports that Army private Bradley Manning was charged with aiding the enemy, a

capital offense. Even though a capital offense is punishable by death, the Army prosecution will

not seek this level of punishment. United States officials say Manning put countless lives at risk

by revealing the identities of people working secretly with the United States. Furthermore, some

of the cables revealed embarrassing descriptions and assessments of foreign leaders which could

have damaged U.S. relations with allies.

 

American Civil Liberties Union

14.  ACLU Says Third-Party Publishers Entitled to First Amendment Protection

December 16, 2010

Source: http://www.aclu.org/free-speech/aclu-says-third-party-publishers-entitled-first-amendment-protection

Date Accessed: March 15, 2011

Media type: News release

Tone: Dominant government/Pro-WikiLeaks

Frame: Rule/Law Enforcers

Summary:

The American Civil Liberties Union submitted testimony to Congress saying prosecuting

WikiLeaks under the Espionage Act would possibly constitute a violation of First Amendment

rights. Furthermore, broadening the Espionage Act would exacerbate the First Amendment

deficiencies that already exist in the Act and create a negative effect on journalism.

A copy of the ACLU’s testimony can be found at: www.aclu.org/free-speech/aclu-statement-house-judiciary-committee-hearing-wikileaks-and-espionage-act

15.  First Amendment Groups Urge Protections in Aftermath of WikiLeaks Document Release

December 22, 2010

Source: http://www.aclu.org/free-speech-national-security/first-amendment-groups-urge-protections-aftermath-wikileaks-document-r

Date Accessed: March 15, 2011

Media type: News release

Tone: Dominant government/Pro-WikiLeaks

Frame: Rule/Law Enforcers

Summary:

The American Civil Liberties Union and a coalition of free speech organizations sent an open

letter to public officials cautioning against the prosecution of third party publishers for

publishing leaked government documents and efforts to limit the rights of individuals to view the

documents. According to the letter, “[t]hese actions have created an atmosphere of fear and

uncertainty among the general public.”

The full text of the letter is available online at: www.aclu.org/free-speech-national-security/open-letter-public-officials-about-wikileaks

16.  Court Rules Against Privacy in Battle over Twitter Records

March 11, 2011

Source: http://www.aclu.org/technology-and-liberty/court-rules-against-privacy-battle-over-twitter-records

Date Accessed: March 15, 2011

Media type: News release

Tone: Dominant government/Pro-WikiLeaks

Frame: Rule/Law Enforcers

Summary:

A federal magistrate judge in Virginia ruled that the government can collect the private records

of three Twitter users as part of its investigation related to WikiLeaks, and that those users and

the public can be prevented from seeing some of the documents that the government submitted to

the court to justify obtaining their records. This ruling will allow the government to amass

private information related to individuals’ internet communications, as well as block the

individual from ever knowing companies were ordered to turn over the information. In other

words, the government will be able to track our every move without us knowing about it.

 

Lawfare

17.  Seven Thoughts on WikiLeaks

By Jack Goldsmith

December 10, 2010

Source: http://www.lawfareblog.com/2010/12/seven-thoughts-on-wikileaks/

Date Accessed: March 1, 2011

Media type: Blog

Tone: Pro-Assange; anti-government due to double standard

Frame: Rule/Law Enforcers

Summary:

Goldsmith believes Assange is being unduly vilified. He believes that the responsibility to

maintain secret documents lies with the institution empowered to keep them secret: the

Executive branch. Laissez-faire policies allowed PFC Manning to have access to sensitive

information. How would the public and administration have reacted if Manning had turned the

documents over to the New York Times, instead of WikiLeaks? In 2005-2006, the New York

Times published sensitive information about the government’s surveillance programs. How is

this different? The best thing to do is ignore Assange and fix the secrecy systems so this does not

happen again.

18.  The Washington Post on WikiLeaks

By Benjamin Wittes

December 12, 2010

Source: http://www.lawfareblog.com/2010/12/the-washington-post-on-wikileaks/

Date Accessed: March 1, 2011

Media type: Blog

Tone: Pro-Assange

Frame: Rule/Law Enforcers

Summary:

The blanket proposition that the government has no business prosecuting someone not obligated

to protect secrets for disclosing protected material overstates an important idea. The important

idea is that the United States has never had an Official Secrets Act, a generalized prohibition

against private sector publication of state secrets.

19.  Tuesday Morning Quarterback on WikiLeaks

By Jack Goldsmith

December 23, 2010

Source: http://www.lawfareblog.com/2010/12/tuesday-morning-quarterback-on-wikileaks/

Date Accessed: March 1, 2011

Media type: Blog

Tone: Pro-Assange

Frame: Politician

Summary:

Maybe the WikiLeaks idea is indeed wrong.  But compared to White House and Pentagon

officials who leak to the media when it suits them, isn’t Assange – who uses his name rather than

hiding behind anonymity – the honest one? Scrutiny of the double standard will weaken press

freedoms as the government condemns as criminal the everyday practices of national security

reporters (and other reporters) in soliciting and facilitating leaks of classified information. 

20.  No Evidence that Assange Induced Manning to Leak

By Jack Goldsmith

February 9, 2011

Source: http://www.lawfareblog.com/2011/02/no-evidence-that-assange-induced-manning-to-leak/

Date Accessed: March 1, 2011

Media type: Blog

Tone: Pro-Assange and media rights

Frame: Rule/Law Enforcers

Summary:

The Department of Justice’s expectation to find evidence that Assange induced PFC Manning to

leak sensitive documents has failed to mature. The federal prosecutors will have a difficult time

charging, not to mention prove, Assange possessed, distributed and published classified

documents. This will be a success for the traditional American press freedoms.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix B

Liberal and Conservative Blogs

The following sections of this appendix analyze a new media, internet blogs, that have recently been gaining popularity, and by 2014, it is estimated that 150 million Americans, 60% of the US internet population, will read blogs monthly (EMarket 2010).  Old media sources, television, radio, and newspapers, have been an important factor in influencing public opinion, and with the rise of this new media, understanding it is imperative to media studies and to the understanding of moral panics. 

Methods

             The first step in understanding and analyzing a moral panic is to examine the actors involved.  A content analysis will be employed to assess the prevalence of multiple internet blogs' depiction of Wikileaks as a folk devil.  This analysis can then be used to determine if this body of media has over exaggerated or distorted the threats posed by Wikileaks, and if Wikileaks has been characterized or depicted as folk devils.  This content analysis will only look to determine if Wikileaks have been labeled as folk devils, but options to further this analysis are available. 

            There are currently over 159 million identified blogs on the internet (Blogpulse 2010).  These blogs are created and maintained by a diverse set of individuals that range from prominent political figures to the average citizen.  The internet blogs used in this study will be labeled as "grassroots” blogs as very few are represented in Wikio's Top Blogs - Politics, The Conservative 100, or The Progressive Liberal 100 which track dynamic links and other factors in determining their rankings.  The use of these less "popular" blogs or more “general public” blogs allows for a content analysis to assess an array of variables.  The variable examined in this study involves the use of frames by these “grassroots blogs”.  Because of the representation of the general public that these blogs represent, an analysis could also evaluate the influence of mainstream media, politicians, and law enforcers on the general public.

            The blogs chosen were selected from a database of political blogs that were organized by political orientation.  To keep a fairly unbiased sample, both liberal and conservative databases were chosen.  80 liberal blogs and 54 conservative blogs were examined by searching each website using the term Wikileaks.  Only relevant articles were chosen to appear in this study, and if an article only mentioned Wikileaks in passing, it was left out.  Articles that revolved around Assange are included as Wikileaks and Assange are virtually synonymous in context to this research.  Private Manning is obviously strongly linked to Wikileaks, but is considered a completely separate issue for the purpose of this study and was thus left out1.  The first five relevant Wikileaks articles were chosen if a website had more than five2.  Since time was a factor, assessing 133 blogs and every article with the word Wikileaks was not viable, and by limiting the articles to five per blog, it greatly reduces any outlier effects. 

            The articles were analyzed to look at the framing of these blogs towards Wikileaks.  The general frames were characterized as positive, negative, or neutral in their depiction of Wikileaks.  Within the general frames, the study reveals more specific frames used in these blogs that emphasize a specific representation.  The specific frames were organized into nine different themes and categorized under the positive and negative frames.  The negatively framed articles were evaluated to determine if they depicted Wikileaks as a folk devil.  The specific negative frames as well as the overall tone of the article were taken into account as well.  Finally, the analysis examines the social actors that are cited in each article.

 

Summary

One of the few generalizations that can be made when assessing the data, as shown below in Table 1, resulting from the content analysis is that only 22.43% of the articles were neutral in their reporting on Wikileaks which was fairly consistent across between the two categories.  The lack of neutrally framed articles and low percentages of citations can be used to understand the characteristics of blogging and its opinionated nature.  This assumption is also complemented by the use of blogs as online journals and online diaries.

The content analysis revealed a major difference between the liberal blogs and conservative blogs in their depictions of Wikileaks and Assange.  The liberal blogs had a fairly even mixture of positive, negative, and neutral articles ranging from 25.64% to 41.02%.  On the other hand, the conservative blogs portrayed Wikileaks in a negative frame in almost 9 out of 10 articles.  The difference is quite staggering and can also be seen in the rate that Wikileaks is depicted as a folk devil.  The conservative blogs depicted him as a folk devil in 69.23% of their articles, while the liberal blogs only depicted him as a folk devil in one article.

Another difference in the negative frames between the two categories can be seen with the way these articles depict Wikileaks and Assange.  The negatively framed liberal blogs consisted of issues regarding rape survivors and irresponsibility rather than the conservative’s focus on national security, treason, espionage, and criminal behavior.  The variations in the specific negative frames between the two are consistent with the differences in the depiction of Wikileaks as a folk devil.

Discussion and Conclusion

The goal of the content analysis of “grassroots” blogs was to determine if this body of media had depicted Wikileaks as a folk devil or attempted to, and that goal is almost unobtainable given the information that is provided here.  The abundance of liberal blogs within this study is fairly representative of the database that provided the links to all political blogs, and assuming that information is representative of the blogosphere in general, an attempt at a moral panic by the blogging community was not present.  As only 35.89% depict Wikileaks as a folk devil, it would be safe to assume that there wasn’t a “collective” attempt to represent Wikileaks as an “embodiment of evil” (Bonn 2010:7), although this could be a topic of debate and further analysis in comparison to other topics that have been labeled as a moral panic. 

On the other hand, it could be perceived that the conservative blogging had attempted to create a moral panic as almost 90% of the articles had a negative tone, and 69.23% of them met the standards of labeling WikiLeaks a folk devil.  This trend in data could be further studied with the use of more in-depth research methods.

            These statements only represent the limited information used in this study, and are contingent on the assumptions that have been made.  Because of the limited information this study represents, a better, more precise understanding of the media requires more information and better methods of research that could include:

1: The number of active political blogs

2: A representative sample of political blogs

3: The amount of traffic each blog receives

4: Who finances, maintains, and contributes to each blog

5: A better understanding of what constitutes the depiction of a folk devil

6: A solid understanding of where each blog receives their information

These examples only represent a portion of the ways that this research could be improved. Another avenue of study that can be taken is to look “grassroots” blogs as a representation of the general public.  If these blogs represent the general public, it could be safe to assume that the requirements for a moral panic have not been met.

As discussed earlier, media is changing, and media studies should focus on pursuing an understanding of the new media that is emerging and gaining popularity.  The use of media is a valuable tool for society, and knowledge involving it should be pursued immediately for the betterment of society.

All Websites/Blogs Examined

Format:

Blog URL Blog Title

Total Blog Websites: 134

-Liberal Blog Sites: 80 Total

1.     http://fidlerten.com/ Fidler's Politics

2.     http://www.fauxnewsnetwork.com/ Faux News Network

3.     http://codebluepolitics.com/ Code Blue Politics

4.     http://garlinggauge.com/ Faux News Network

5.     http://dadinleftfield.com/ Dad in Left Field

6.     http://garlinggauge.com/ Garling Gauge

7.     http://bgoon.blogspot.com/ Today's World

8.     http://conservativesarecommunistss.blogspot.com/ Conservatives Are America's Real Terrorists

9.     http://openscandal.com/ Open Scandal

10.  http://teacherman04.blogspot.com/ Americans for reason and truth

11.  http://simplifythepositive.blogspot.com/ Brown Man Thinking Hard

12.  http://28thamendment.wordpress.com/ The 28th Amendment

13.  http://brainspank.org/ Brainspank

14.  http://swimmingfreestyle.typepad.com/ Swimming Freestyle

15.  http://velvelonnationalaffairs.blogspot.com/ Velvel on National Affairs

16.  http://sisterstalk.net/blog/ SistersTalk

17.  http://tooseriousmatter.blogspot.com/ Too Serious A Matter

18.  http://heatherannastasia.blogspot.com/ Heather Annastasia Siladi's Blogspot

19.  http://politicalsalon.blogspot.com/ Political Salon

20.  http://le-enfant-terrible.blogspot.com/ l'enfant terrible

21.  http://lionboi.blogspot.com/ Lionboi Blues & News

22.  http://www.lostnation.tv/ Lost Nation.tv

23.  http://www.americansdebate.com/blog/ AmericansDebate.com Blog

24.  http://www.watchingpolitics.com/ WatchingPolitics

25.  http://altara.blogspot.com/ altara

26.  http://www.thehueandcry.com/ The Hue and Cry

27.  http://www.topofmyhead.info/ Top of My Head

28.  http://freshsalad.blogspot.com/ Fresh Salad

29.  http://consumedwithrage.blogs.com/ Chronically Pissed

30.  http://www.rockthrower.blogs.com/ RockThrower

31.  http://www.blah3.com/ Blah3

32.  http://bloggerradio.com/ BloggerRadio.com

33.  http://agitprop.typepad.com/ Agitprop

34.  http://www.skipperstyle.com/ SkipperStyle

35.  http://pbd.blogspot.com/ Progressive Blog Digest

36.  http://www.justtotheleft.com/ Just To The Left

37.  http://zenreports.blogspot.com/ zenophobia: enlightened fear

38.  http://directory.etalkinghead.com/www.sheanc.blogspot.com Constantly Amazed, Yet Never Surprised

39.  http://walkerw.blogspot.com/ Delivering Hope

40.  http://abetternation.blogspot.com/ A Better Nation

41.  http://www.moxiegrrrl.com/ MoxieGrrrl

42.  http://shakespearessister.blogspot.com/ Shakesville

43.  http://sustainablog.blogspot.com/ sustainablog

44.  http://dissentchannel.blogspot.com/ Dissent Channel

45.  http://snunes.blogspot.com/ Random Thoughts: Unfair and Unbalanced

46.  http://jdeeth.blogspot.com/ John Deeth Blog

47.  http://digitaljay.blogspot.com/ Disconnected Rumblings

48.  http://praguewriter.typepad.com/praguewriter/ Prague Writer

49.  http://aboutpolitics.blogspot.com/ About Politics

50.  http://iddybud.blogspot.com/ iddybud

51.  http://hellofromparis.blogspot.com/ The Frog Blog

52.  http://nathancallahan.com/ NathanCallahan.com

53.  http://www.jpandre.blogspot.com/ That's Going Too Far!

54.  http://www.frederickclarkson.com/ Frederick Clarkson

55.  http://forewarned.blogspot.com/ Forewarned is Forearmed

56.  http://wynterstoner.blogspot.com/ An Englishman in New York

57.  http://interestingtimes.typepad.com/ Interesting Times

58.  http://farleft.blogspot.com/ Far Left

59.  http://www.estropundit.blogspot.com/ Estropundit

60.  http://www.hotflashreport.com/ Hot Flash Report

61.  http://blog.dennisfox.net/ Dennis Fox's Weblog

62.  http://barkingdingo.blogspot.com/ Barking Dingo

63.  http://doubter.blogspot.com/ Freethought

64.  http://beastsbelly.blogspot.com/ Belly of the Beast

65.  http://tom_thinks.blogspot.com/ tom_thinks

66.  http://www.johnband.org/blog/ Banditry

67.  http://www.deathpenaltyusa.blogspot.com/ Abolish the Death Penalty

68.  http://lowrentrat.blogdrive.com/ Low Rent Rat

69.  http://www.myleftbrain.com/ My Left Brain

70.  http://www.tinylittledots.com/ tiny little dots

71.  http://displib.blogspot.com/ Dispassionate Liberal

72.  http://strangedoctrines.blogspot.com/ Strange Doctrines

73.  http://lawdork.net/ Law Dork

74.  http://demagogue.blogspot.com/ Demagogue

75.  http://www.mstabile.blogspot.com/ Left is Right

76.  http://www.madkane.com/madness/ Mad Kane's Notables

77.  http://www.talkleft.com/ TalkLeft: The Politics of Crime

78.  http://www.xnerg.blogspot.com/ skippy the bush kangaroo

79.  http://dimmykarras.blogspot.com/ Dimmy Karras

80.  http://www.samefacts.com/ Mark A.R. Kleiman

-Conservative Blog Sites: 54 Total

1.     http://political-conservatives.blogspot.com/ Conservative Musings

2.     http://allthingspoliticaltoday.com/ All Things Political Today

3.     http://thinktownusa-thinktownusa.blogspot.com/ Thinktown USA Report

4.     http://www.republicanguru.com/ The Republican Guru

5.     http://newliberaldemocrat.blogspot.com/ New Liberal Democrat

6.     http://www.truglobalist.com/ TruGlobalist

7.     http://www.commentsonnationalamnesia.com/ Comments on National Amnesia

8.     http://capitolcommentary.com/ Capitol Commentary

9.     http://www.constitutionalfreedom.org/ Constitutional Freedom

10.  http://standupforamerica.wordpress.com/ Stand Up for America

11.  http://politicsandfinance.blogspot.com/ The Political Commentator

12.  http://www.mccainsloneranger.blogspot.com/ McCain's Lone Ranger

13.  http://michaeljohnsonfreedomandprosperity.blogspot.com/ Michael Johns

14.  http://www.classicalvalues.com/ Classical Values

15.  http://agoodchoice.blogspot.com/ A Good Choice

16.  http://www.flagstuff.com/blog The American Standard Bearer

17.  http://www.clearcommentary.com/ Clear Commentary

18.  http://dakotawarcollege.com/ South Dakota War College

19.  http://www.capecodporcupine.blogspot.com/ Peter Porcupine

20.  http://therealthing.blogs.com/ There is No Second Place

21.  http://govchz.blogspot.com/ Government Cheese

22.  http://bittersweetme.net/blog/ Bittersweet

23.  http://politicspost.blogspot.com/ The Politics Post

24.  http://www.americanconservativedaily.com/ American Conservative Daily

25.  http://abercrombieview.blogspot.com/ The Abercrombie View

26.  http://www.mattjohnston.blogspot.com/ Going to the Mat

27.  http://gotdesign.blogspot.com/ GotDesign

28.  http://theurbangrind.blogspot.com/ The Urban Grind

29.  http://dsshubris.blogspot.com/ DSS Hubris

30.  http://c-pol.blogspot.com/ C-Pol: Constitutionalist, Conservative Politics

31.  http://new84rules.blogspot.com/ 84rules

32.  http://www.hipublican.com/ Hipublican Dot Com

33.  http://confederateyankee.mu.nu/ Confederate Yankee

34.  http://apologiesdemanded.blogspot.com/ APOLOGIES DEMANDED

35.  http://truthprobe.blogspot.com/ Truthprobe

36.  http://www.blogsagainsthillary.com/ Blogs Against Hillary

37.  http://gullyborg.typepad.com/ Resistance is futile!

38.  http://bloghogger.blogspot.com/ Blog Hogger

39.  http://juntoboys.blogspot.com/ Junto Boys

40.  http://coffee.ondragonswing.com/ Coffee with CrankyBeach

41.  http://crankybastard.blogspot.com/ Cranky Bastard

42.  http://www.all-encompassingly.com/ all-encompassingly

43.  http://www.nykola.com/home.html Nykola

44.  http://www.cybermenace.blogspot.com/ The Cyber Menace

45.  http://charlesking.blogspot.com/ A Pax American and other fun stuff

46.  http://myechochamber.blogspot.com/ My Echo Chamber

47.  http://www.iainlindley.co.uk/ Iain's Council Blog

48.  http://www.erickohn.com/ EricKohn.com

49.  http://www.keithy1028.bravejournal.com/ Keiths Political Journal

50.  http://rncnyc2004.blogspot.com/ Republican National Convention Blog

51.  http://discerningtexan.blogspot.com/ The Discerning Texan

52.  http://www.blogtalker.logonnewzine.com/ BlogTalker

53.  http://alarmingnews.com/ Alarming News

54.  http://redmindbluestate.blogspot.com/ A Red Mind in a Blue State

 

Sources | Frames | Label | Social Actors

 

Format:

Article Title

Author – Date Posted

Frames: General Frame – Specific Frame

Folk Devil: Yes/No

Social Actors: Lists of Social Actors Included in the article

Article URL

 

Liberal Blog Sources

Valerie Plame, YES! Wikileaks, NO!

David R. Hoffman - March 12, 2010

Frames:  Positive - Transparency

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: None

http://english.pravda.ru/opinion/columnists/03-12-2010/116041-valerie_plame_wikileaks-0/

 

Wikileaks Prove that U. S. Officials are Doing a Superb Job and that Julian Ass-ange is a World-Class Ass-Hole

Leslie H. Gelb - December 1, 2010

Frames:  Positive - Irresponsible/Unnecessary, Criminal/Espionage

Folk Devil: Yes

Social Actors: None

http://conservativesarecommunistss.blogspot.com/2010/12/wikileaks-prove-u-s-officials-are-doing.html

 

BULLETIN – REVISED STATISTICS CONCERNING OBAMA’S WAR

Sidney Gendin - October 23, 2010

Frames:  Neutral

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: Politician

http://watchingpolitics.com/?p=7137

 

The Geek Tact Filter and Johnny Paycheck in the Age of Wikileaks

Monday, November 29, 2010

Frames:  Neutral

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: None

http://jdeeth.blogspot.com/2010/11/geek-tact-filter-and-johnny-paycheck-in.html

 

The WikiLeaks video; business as usual

Jay McDonough - April 6, 2010

Frames:  Neutral

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: None

http://swimmingfreestyle.typepad.com/swimming_freestyle/2010/04/the-wikileaks-video-business-as-usual.html

 

And More WikiLeaks

Melissa McEwan - December 06, 2010

Frames:  Negative -Rape/Attempted Rape Charges, National Security/Endangering Human Lives

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: Politician, Main Stream Media, Law Enforcer

http://shakespearessister.blogspot.com/2010/12/and-more-wikileaks.html

 

Latest Assange Rape Apologist: Julian Assange

Melissa McEwan - December 17, 2010

Frames:  Negative - Rape/Attempted Rape Charges

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: Main Stream Media

http://shakespearessister.blogspot.com/2010/12/latest-assange-rape-apologist-julian.html

 

Michael Moore Doubles Down on Rape Apologia

Melissa McEwan - December 15, 2010

Frames:  Negative - Rape/Attempted Rape Charges

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: Main Stream Media

http://shakespearessister.blogspot.com/2010/12/michael-moore-doubles-down-on-rape.html

 

More WikiLeaks

Melissa McEwan - December 06, 2010

Frames: Negative - Irresponsible/Unnecessary, National Security/Endangering Human Lives

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: Main Stream Media

http://shakespearessister.blogspot.com/2010/12/more-wikileaks.html

 

Statistics for rape apologists

Eastsidekate - December 16, 2010

Frames:  Negative - Rape/Attempted Rape Charges

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: Main Stream Media

http://shakespearessister.blogspot.com/2010/12/statistics-for-rape-apologists.html

 

Today's WikiLeaks Round-Up

Melissa McEwan - November 30, 2010

Frames:  Neutral

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: Main Stream Media, Politician

http://shakespearessister.blogspot.com/2010/11/todays-wikileaks-round-up.html

 

WikiLeaks Open Thread

Melissa McEwan - November 29, 2010

Frames:  Neutral

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: Main Stream Media, Politician

http://shakespearessister.blogspot.com/2010/11/wikileaks-open-thread.html

 

Yikes

Melissa McEwan - December 14, 2010

Frames:  Neutral

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: None

http://shakespearessister.blogspot.com/2010/12/yikes_14.html

 

Dipshit of the Day

Melissa McEwan - October 29, 2010

Frames:  Positive

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: Main Stream Media

http://shakespearessister.blogspot.com/2010/10/dipshit-of-day_29.html

 

 

 

Today in Not News: The Afghanistan War Blows

Melissa McEwan - July 26, 2010

Frames:  Positive - Transparency

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: Main Stream Media, Politician

http://shakespearessister.blogspot.com/2010/07/today-in-not-news-afghanistan-war-blows.html

 

When You Have a War, There Will Be War Crimes

Melissa McEwan - April 06, 2010

Frames:  Positive - Transparency, Promoting Truth in Journalism

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: Politician

http://shakespearessister.blogspot.com/2010/04/when-you-have-war-there-will-be-war.html

 

WikiLeaks Owner Rape Allegations

M. Young - August 24th, 2010

Frames:  Neutral

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: None

http://openscandal.com/2010/08/24/wikileaks-rape-allegations/

 

WikiLeaks, A Different View of Afghanistan

Admin - July 26th, 2010

Frames:  Neutral

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: Politician

http://openscandal.com/2010/07/26/wikileaks-a-different-view-of-afghanistan/

 

WikiLeaks and Sarah Palin

M. Young - December 2, 2010

Frames:  Positive - Transparency

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: Politician

http://openscandal.com/2010/12/02/wikileaks-and-sarah-palin/

 

WikiLeaks, Shooting the Messenger

M. Young  - December 11, 2010

Frames:  Positive - Transparency, Patriotic

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: Politian

http://openscandal.com/2010/12/11/wikileaks-shooting-the-messenger/

 

 

 

 

HURRICANE WIKILEAKS HEADING TOWARD BANK OF AMERICA?

Interesting Times - January 3, 2011

Frames -  Transparency

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: Politician, Main Stream Media

http://www.i-times.org/interesting_times/2011/01/hurricane-wikileaks-heading-toward-bank-of-america.html

 

REPUTATIONS OF ALLEGED BANK CHEATERS THE WORLD OVER IN THE HANDS OF WIKILEAKS

Interesting Times - January 17, 2011

Frames:  Positive - Transparency

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: None

http://www.i-times.org/interesting_times/2011/01/reputations-of-alleged-bank-cheaters-the-world-over-in-the-hands-of-wikileaks.html

 

US JUSTICE DEPARTMENT FRANTICALLY PEDALING TO NAIL ASSANGE

Interesting Times - October 16, 2011

Frames:  Positive

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: Main Stream Media

http://www.i-times.org/interesting_times/2010/12/us-justice-department-frantically-pedaling-to-nail-assange.html

 

WHAT A CAN OF WORMS WIKELEAKS HAS OPENED

Interesting Times - October 3, 2010

Frames:  Positive - Transparency, Promoting Truth in Journalism

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: Main Stream Media

http://www.i-times.org/interesting_times/2010/12/what-a-can-of-worms-wikeleaks-has-opened.html

 

WIKILEAKS UNDER SIEGE, ASSANGE ARRESTED, BACKLASH GROWING

Interesting Times - December 12, 2010

Frames:  Positive - Transparency

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: Main Stream Media

http://www.i-times.org/interesting_times/2010/12/wikileaks-under-siege-assange-arrested-backlash-growing-.html

 

British Judge Approves Julian Assange Extradition to Sweden

Jeralyn - February 24, 2011

Frames:  Neutral

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: None

http://www.talkleft.com/story/2011/2/24/135926/571

 

Witness Says Julian Assange is Being Framed

Jeralyn - February 07, 2011

Frames:  Neutral

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: None

http://www.talkleft.com/story/2011/2/7/224331/5058

 

The Media's Continuing War On Wikileaks

Big Tent Democrat - January 13, 2011

Frames:  Positive

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: None

http://www.talkleft.com/story/2011/1/13/113627/677

 

The Ethos Of The New "Journamalism"

Big Tent Democrat - January 4, 2011

Frames:  Positive -  Promoting Truth in Journalism

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: Main Stream Media

http://www.talkleft.com/story/2011/1/4/11143/56244

 

Biden Refers to Potential Conspiracy Charge Against Julian Assange

Jeralyn - December 19, 2010

Frames:  Neutral

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: Main Stream Media, Politician

http://www.talkleft.com/story/2010/12/19/13419/455

 

all your tweets are belong to us

Cookie Jill - January 08, 2011

Frames:  Positive - Transparency, Promoting Truth in Journalism

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: None

http://xnerg.blogspot.com/search?q=wikileaks

 

wikiseizure

Cookie Jill - January 01, 2011

Frames:  Neutral

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: None

http://xnerg.blogspot.com/search?q=wikileaks

 

environmental news stories sunday

Cookie Jill - December 19, 2010

Frames:  Neutral

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: None

http://xnerg.blogspot.com/search?q=wikileaks

 

the world wide smear campaign

Cookie Jill - December 03, 2010

Frames: Positive

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: None

http://xnerg.blogspot.com/search?q=wikileaks

 

the media = lapdogs to authority

Cookie Jill - November 29, 2010

Frames: Positive - Promoting Truth in Journalism

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: None

http://xnerg.blogspot.com/search?q=wikileaks

 

How Secret Diplomatic Communication Laid the Groundwork for Peace in Ireland

Keith Humphreys - November 29th, 2010

Frames - National Security/Endangering Human Lives

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: None

http://www.samefacts.com/2010/11/secrecy-in-government/how-secret-diplomatic-communication-laid-the-groundwork-for-peace-in-ireland/

 

Of WikiLeaks and the Pentagon Papers

Mark Kleiman - November 29th, 2010

Frames: Negative - Irresponsible/Unnecessary

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: None

http://www.samefacts.com/2010/11/uncategorized/of-wikileaks-and-the-pentagon-papers/

 

The Wikileaker should serve some time

Harold Pollack - November 28th, 2010

Frames: Negative - Irresponsible/Unnecessary, National Security/Endangering Human Lives

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: None

http://www.samefacts.com/2010/11/secrecy-in-government/the-wikileaker-should-serve-some-time/

 

 

Should WikiLeaks be closed down?

Harold Pollack - July 30th, 2010

Frames: Negative - Irresponsible/Unnecessary

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: Main Stream Media

http://www.samefacts.com/2010/07/secrecy-in-government/should-wikileaks-be-closed-down/

 

Conservative Blog Sources

The WikiLeaks Fiasco

No Author - February 7, 2011

Frames: Negative - Criminal/Espionage, Rape/Attempted Rape Charges

Folk Devil: Yes

Social Actors: None

http://allthingspoliticaltoday.com/?p=142

 

Boycott Berkeley

The Guru - December 19, 2010

Frames: Negative

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: None

http://www.republicanguru.com/?p=495

 

Crimes and Misdemeanors

Burt Prelutsky - August 30, 2010

Frames: Negative - Traitor/Treason

Folk Devil: Yes

Social Actors: None

http://www.commentsonnationalamnesia.com/2010/08/30/crimes-and-misdemeanors/

 

Micheal Moore To Finances Wikileaks Traitor’s Defense

William McCullough - August 21, 2010

Frames: Negative - Traitor/Treason, Aided American Enemies

Folk Devil: Yes

Social Actors: Main Stream Media

http://www.commentsonnationalamnesia.com/2010/08/21/micheal-moore-to-finances-wikileaks-traitors-defense/

 

Obama Aiding And Abetting Treason And Treachery?

William McCullough - July 29, 2010

Frames: Negative - Traitor/Treason, National Security/Endangering Human Lives

Folk Devil: Yes

Social Actors: None

http://www.commentsonnationalamnesia.com/2010/07/29/obama-aiding-and-abetting-treason-and-treachery/

 

WikiLeaks: Cowards in the Open

Harrison - July 30, 2010

Frames: Negative - National Security/Endangering Human Lives

Folk Devil: Yes

Social Actors: None

http://capitolcommentary.com/2010/07/30/wikileaks-cowards-in-the-open/

 

The Problem with WikiLeaks

Harrison - December 1, 2010

Frames: Negative

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: None

http://capitolcommentary.com/2010/12/01/the-problem-with-wikileaks/

 

Aftermath of Arizona Shooting: Media Only Discredit Themselves

Harrison - January 18 2011

Frames: Negative

Folk Devil: Yes

Social Actors: None

http://capitolcommentary.com/2011/01/18/aftermath-of-arizona-shooting-media-only-discredit-themselves/

 

WikiLeaks is Simply Bad for Everone

USWeapon - December 6, 2010

Frames: Negative - National Security/Endangering Human Lives

Folk Devil: Yes

Social Actors: None

http://standupforamerica.wordpress.com/2010/12/06/wikileaks-is-simply-bad-for-everone/

 

THE LYING TRUTH, THE LEAKY TRUTH, AND THE TRUTH-TRUTH!

Eric - December 09, 2010

Frames: Negative - National Security/Endangering Human Lives

Folk Devil: Yes

Social Actors: Politician

http://www.classicalvalues.com/archives/2010/12/the_lying_truth.html

 

IN WHICH I PART FROM THE RIGHT

Dave - November 30, 2010

Frames: Negative - Rape/Attempted Rape Charges

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: Main Stream Media

http://www.classicalvalues.com/archives/2010/11/in_which_i_part.html

 

 

 

WIKI WAR

Dave - October 24, 2010

Frames: Neutral

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: None

http://www.classicalvalues.com/archives/2010/10/wiki_war.html

 

A Different Take on Julian Assange

Matt - December 30, 2010

Frames: Neutral 

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: None

http://agoodchoice.blogspot.com/search?q=wikileaks

 

‘Collateral Murder’ Veterans Apologize to Iraqi Families

Eric - April 29, 2010

Frames: Neutral

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: None

http://agoodchoice.blogspot.com/search?q=wikileaks

 

UPDATES: Assange, Gore, Multiculturalism

Gene Lalor - February 12, 2011

Frames: Negative - Rape/Attempted Rape Charges

Folk Devil: Yes

Social Actors: None

http://www.americanconservativedaily.com/2011/02/updates-assange-gore-multiculturalism/

 

Wikileaks War: No More Secrets

David Huntwork - December 23, 2010

Frames: Negative - National Security/Endangering Human Lives, Aided American Enemies

Folk Devil: Yes

Social Actors: None

http://www.americanconservativedaily.com/2010/12/wikileaks-war-no-more-secrets/

 

The Long And Short Of The Wikileaks and Julian Assange Saga

J.J. Jackson - December 11, 2010

Frames:  Negative - National Security/Endangering Human Lives

Folk Devil: Yes

Social Actors: None

http://www.americanconservativedaily.com/2010/12/the-long-and-short-of-the-wikileaks-and-julian-assange-saga/

 

Where is the US Indictment of Julian Assange?

J.D. Longstreet - December 8, 2010

Frames: Negative - Criminal/Espionage

Folk Devil: Yes

Social Actors: Main Stream Media, Politician, Law Enforcer

http://www.americanconservativedaily.com/2010/12/where-is-the-us-indictment-of-julian-assange/

 

Whistleblower? More Like An Executioner!

Skip MacLure - December 2, 2010

Frames: Negative - Criminal/Espionage, Traitor/Treason

Folk Devil: Yes

Social Actors: None

http://www.americanconservativedaily.com/2010/12/whistleblower-more-like-an-executioner/

 

Wikileaks: Enemy of the United States

Matt Johnston - November 29, 2010

Frames: Negative - National Security/Endangering Human Lives

Folk Devil: Yes

Social Actors: None

http://mattjohnston.blogspot.com/search?q=wikileaks

 

Quick Takes

Mike M. - February 10, 2011

Frames: Negative - Rape/Attempted Rape Charges

Folk Devil: Yes

Social Actors: None

http://confederateyankee.mu.nu/archives/311897.php

 

WikiLeaks? A Whole Lot of Nothing Going On

Bob Owens - July 27, 2010

Frames: Negative  

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: Main Stream Media

http://confederateyankee.mu.nu/archives/304034.php

 

"WikiSleeps" Offers Little News in Latest Document Dump

Confederate Yankee - November 29, 2010

Frames: Negative - Rape/Attempted Rape Charges, Criminal/Espionage

Folk Devil: Yes

Social Actors: None

http://confederateyankee.mu.nu/archives/308810.php

 

WikiLeaks is Now A Terrorist Organization

Confederate Yankee - December 5, 2010

Frames: Negative - National Security/Endangering Human Lives, Aided American Enemies

Folk Devil: Yes

Social Actors: None

http://confederateyankee.mu.nu/archives/309022.php

 

Tangos Down: WikiLeaks Misrepresents Apache Assault on Medhi Army Militia

Confederate Yankee - April 5, 2010

Frames: Negative 

Folk Devil: No

Social Actors: None

http://confederateyankee.mu.nu/archives/300258.php

 

Peter King Calls on Treasury Secretary Geithner to Act to Disrupt WikiLeaks

SOOKIETEX - January 13, 2011

Frames: Negative - National Security/Endangering Human Lives

Folk Devil: Yes

Social Actors: Politician

http://rncnyc2004.blogspot.com/2011/01/peter-king-calls-on-treasury-secretary.html

 


 

Table 1

Comparison of Liberal Blog Articles and Conservative Blog Articles for General Frames, Positive and Negative Frames, Labels, and Social Actors

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix C

Cable Television: CNN, Fox News, MSNBC

CNN

This is the breakdown of WikiLeaks coverage on CNN News (30 picked randomly) between spring 2010 till April 2011.  The title is first followed by the date of the coverage, then the frames (tone) - common frames used, followed by the label (folk devil if it applied), social actors, then the web site where the video can be seen, and a small review and/or comments by viewers of the coverage. The media collected was then separated into five categories based on the dominant social actor portrayed but when coverage could be put in more than one frame or by more than one social actor I put it in the dominate frame or social actor, which is listed first. I gave more prevalence to folk devil category when politicians or the media would label them negatively as evil (terrorist, treasonous) and a threat to Americans and American ideals. The five social actors used were first identified by Cohen (1972) as: 1) folk devils; 2) rule or law enforcers; 3) the media; 4) politicians; and 5) the public.  Cohen (1972) described moral panic as the power of emotion expressed in a population about an issue that appears to threaten the social order. A moral panic occurs when "a condition, episode, person or group of persons emerges to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests."  The elites start the panic when they fear a threat to existing social or cultural values are identified by as "moral entrepreneurs", while people who allegedly threaten the social order have been described as "folk devils”. Final combined results for tone and frames come after the breakdown of CNN News coverage on WikiLeaks.

1. Hundreds protest treatment of alleged WikiLeaks whistleblower

 Date - March 21, 2011 11:08 a.m.

 Frames - Tone (Positive), Common Frames – (Transparency, Whistle Blower, Hero)

Label - None

Social Actor - Public, Media

http://www.cnn.com/2011/POLITICS/03/21/wikileaks.protest/index.html?iref=allsearch

People are finally standing up and saluting Private Manning for informing America and people are demanding Obama to release Manning or at least stop torturing him, and claiming Manning is a hero, a patriot and a whistle blower. Protesters gathered outside the gates of Quantico Marine Base in Virginia to protest the in humane treatment of Bradley Manning. Manning, a 23-year-old Army private, is accused of giving WikiLeaks classified military and State Department information.

2. Did Army Ignore WikiLeaks Warning

Date - Added on March 14, 2011

Frames - Tone (Neutral), Common Frames (National Security, Endangering Lives)

Labels – None

 Social Actor - Public, Media

http://www.cnn.com/video/#/video/us/2011/02/05/lawrence.wikileaks.manning.cnn?iref=videosearch

Chris Lawrence reports on information that the Army deployed Private Bradley Manning despite concerns that he wasn’t fit to go to war in Iraq, David House is a friend of Manning and is interviewed about his treatment and tells of the power of social media and educated people.

3. WikiLeaks founder to CNN you should be ashamed, Larry you actually should be ashamed, as well."

Date - Uploaded on Oct 26, 2010

Frames – Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Rapist, Transparency)
Labels - Folk Devil

Social Actor – Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WXTYGV9oSfg

Larry King interviewing Assange, mostly bringing up rape charges and ignoring WikiLeaks information that the government is covering up illegal activities, calling his latest document dump "the most extraordinary history of a war to have ever been released in our civilization," Assange dismissed the questions on his personal life as "tabloid journalism." He further insisted that "it is not right to bring in sensational and, in fact, false claims relatively trivial matter, compared to the deaths of 109,000 people. CNN should be ashamed of doing that. And you, Larry, you actually should be ashamed, as well."

4. CNN.com WikiLeaks How does it work

Date - Uploaded on Dec 1, 2010

Frames - Tone (Neutral) - Common Frame (Transparency)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bOOGuEaTeMs

Bringing up the issue of secrecy vs. transparency is discussed and how important is Assange to WikiLeaks. The cables show the extent of US spying on its allies and the UN; turning a blind eye to corruption and human rights abuse in "client states"; backroom deals with supposedly neutral countries; lobbying for US corporations; and the measures US diplomats take to advance those who have access to them. This document release shows the contradictions between what top US officials say out in the open and what it they say behind closed doors.

5. WikiLeaks founder walks out of interview

Date - Uploaded on Oct 25, 2010

Frames – Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Transparency, Rapist)
Labels - Folk Devil
Social Actor - Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IdbOyWA22jQ

In October, WikiLeaks creator Julian Assange walks out of a meeting on his organization and personal issues which stem from rape charges. Assange asked if he should leave WikiLeaks because he’s damaging to the organization and is questioned about a disgruntled employee who believes Assange is damaging to the work of WikiLeaks. The legal situation of Assange is continuing to be brought up even though the investigation of that is underway and no lawyer is present for Assange.

6. CNN: Is WikiLeaks founder a journalist?

Date - Uploaded by CNN on Release: Dec 13, 2010

Frames – Tone (Positive) - Common Frames (Transparency, Journalism)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a2AM3Br8CIo

CNN's Don Lemon talks to an ex-CIA analyst on whether Julian Assange is a journalist or an enemy. Lemon explains that Assange should be covered by freedom of the press because he’s informing the public. Lemon explains to those listening that Thomas Jefferson said “if he had a choice between a government or a free press he’d choose the free press” and he doesn’t accept the negative labels (terrorist) that most media and the government is giving to Assange and WikiLeaks.

7.  In the Arena CNN: WikiLeaks dump: Leak or attack?

Date - Uploaded by CNN on Release: Dec 6, 2010
Frames - Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Traitor, Unpatriotic, Rapist)
Labels - Folk Devil
Social Actor – Media, Law Enforcer, Politician

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zpAjJj8jAWA

Previous Ambassador Joe Wilson says an unfriendly intelligence service could be behind the new WikiLeaks dump. Wilson believes that Manning and Assange may have ulterior motives for dumping information that should be classified. Wilson calls Manning a social misfit, a hostile intelligence service, an embarrassment and a disgruntled soldier. It's typical that main stream news organizations and politicians would focus on the leaks that they think "caused damage" to the U.S.  Eliot Spitzer directs the interview and Wilson is asked about his problems with the Bush administration concerning his wife and the war in Iraq.

8. Rep. Peter King on CNN on WikiLeaks

Date - Uploaded on Nov 30, 2010

Frames – Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Terrorist, Traitor, Rapist)
Labels - Folk Devil
Social Actor – Media, Politician,

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MOB50MIf1Zw

Member of the House Committee on Homeland Security Representative Peter King, on CNN "The Situation Room" talking about the WikiLeaks release of classified documents says WikiLeaks and Assange have blood on their hands. King says WikiLeaks gives “invitation to murder” and WikiLeaks and Assange are enemy combatants and terrorist’s organizations and anybody that helps them is the same.

9. CNN's Shameful Journalism - Glenn Greenwald vs. CNN - WikiLeaks Debate

Date - Uploaded on12-28-2010

Frames - Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Terrorist, Traitor, Unpatriotic, Rapist, Journalism)
Labels - Folk Devil
Social Actor - Media, Politician

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TJgnJ_W_5zU

CNN's Jessica Yellin and Glenn Greenwald got into a heated debate about journalism and whether WikiLeaks can be placed in the same category as media outlets such as the Washington Post, and CNN. Yellin says Assange and WikiLeaks goal is to embarrass the United States Government. Assange writing a book to support WikiLeaks financially Greenwald claims that Assange is journalist and Yellin not having it and quotes Joe Biden as saying Assange is a “terrorist, and endangers American lives”.

10. Anderson Cooper 360°: CNN: Sen. Lieberman on WikiLeaks' Assange

Date - Uploaded by CNN: Dec 7, 2010

Frames – Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Traitors, Unpatriotic, Terrorists, Journalism)
Labels - Folk Devil
Social Actor – Media, Politician

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Ilky_TiLfY

Sen. Lieberman on if news organizations that publish WikiLeaks will find themselves in legal trouble and that Assange, WikiLeaks and Manning should face charges that influence terrorism, and other media outlets that reprint this “stolen material” should be held libel even though the free press is important Lieberman thinks we should amend the law. Cooper was extremely passive in the interview not even stressing the importance of a free press or even the importance of the lies that WikiLeaks unveiled in the document dumping by the government and elected officials.

11. CNN: WikiLeaks boss defends document release

Date - Uploaded by CNN on Jul 26, 2010

Frames - Tone (Neutral) - Common Frames (Transparency,)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media, Public

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EAqzpENa91w

WikiLeaks editor Julian Assange sticks up for the website's choice to reveal to the public more than 90,000 military documents. King presses Assange about leaking causing deaths to Americans and fact checking of WikiLeaks sources.

12. CNN-Report: WikiLeaks posted 9/11-Messages

Date - Uploaded on Nov 30, 2010

Frames -Tone (Neutral) - Common Frame (Transparency)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media, Public

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cc57_r0gKfg

WikiLeaks releases and says they verified 9-11- messages and that their source was vetted and that after eight years the public can deal with the truth.

13. In the Arena: CNN's Fareed Zakaria: Silver lining in WikiLeaks

Date - Uploaded by CNN on Release: Nov 29, 2010

Frames - Tone (Neutral) - Common Frames (Transparency, Hurts Diplomatic Relations)
Labels - Folk Devil
Social Actor - Media, Politician

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jLsQFqUoVgM

CNN's Ed Spizter is joined by Fareed Zakaria who says there is a ‘silver lining from the huge dump of classified documents by WikiLeaks’. Hilary Clinton speech highlighted and condemns WikiLeaks and tries to repair alliances abroad. The video highlights things revealed by leaks that were said about other nation’s leaders.

14.  WikiLeaks Kristinn Hrafnsson Spokesperson on CNN

Date - Uploaded on Nov 29, 2010
Frames - Tone (Neutral) - Common Frames (Traitor/Rapist/So on)
Labels - Folk Devil (if the article depicts Assange/Wikileaks as one)
Social Actor - Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6b70kkUmg2g

Talks concerned around leaks that question leaders around the world and comparing them to unfavorable and unfriendly terms. WikiLeaks member Kristinn Hrafnsson talks on CNN about why WikiLeaks is releasing 250,000 Secret US Embassy cables. "The Public has a right to know".

15. WikiLeaks CNN attacks PayPal VISA MasterCard

Date - Uploaded on Dec 8, 2010

Frames - Tone (Neutral) - Common Frames (Transparency, Hurts Diplomatic Relations, Hacker)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZPIUPSftTvw

Cyber attacks on PayPal, VISA and Master Card some claim it’s directly from WikiLeaks others say it’s done by ordinary citizens who support WikiLeaks. WikiLeaks losing tons of money because these services won’t have anything financial that deals with WikiLeaks.

16. WikiLeaks - Ron Paul Attacks on WikiLeaks are attempts to 'close down' the Internet CNN

Date - Uploaded on Dec 16, 2010

Frames - Tone (Positive) - Common Frames (Hero, Whistle Blower)
Labels – None

Social Actor – Politician, Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hqjcajGzziE

Ron Paul agrees with Michael Moore that the government lies is more dangerous than WikiLeaks. The news anchor disagrees and gets into a heated debate with Ron Paul and who cuts the interview short when Paul claims that the government doesn’t always tell the truth to the people as in the case with most wars and as in the case of the government shutting down the WikiLeaks site.

17. Ron Paul Maligned by CNN Analysts re WikiLeaks (call him "Nut" and "Martian")

Date - Uploaded on Dec 3, 2010

Frames - Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Traitors, Unpatriotic)
Labels - Folk Devil
Social Actor - Media, Politician,

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QV_Q8WFB9Bw

This appeared on John King, USA show in which Assange, WikiLeaks and Ron Paul are ridiculed and made into the evil other by not only conservatives but liberals as well. Paul criticized by CNN analysts Roland Martin and Erick Erickson, regarding Paul's comments about WikiLeaks. Some people can’t believe a true Texan could feel this way towards WikiLeaks.

18. Larry King Live: CNN: Bob Woodward reacts to WikiLeaks

Date - Uploaded on: Nov 29, 2010

Frames - Tone (Neutral) - Common Frames (Journalism, Transparency)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media,

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DHlO7PQni00

WikiLeaks documents reactions on CNN News Larry King and Bob Woodward of the Washington Post gives their perception on the WikiLeaks dump. They take a moderate position and believe most of the material leaked is not new information that hasn’t already been in the media.

19. CNN: WikiLeaks the new 'Pentagon Papers'

Date - Uploaded by CNN on Jul 26, 2010

Frames -Tone (Neutral) - Common Frames (Transparency, Whistle Blower,)
Labels - None

Social Actor - Media, Public

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KhkETbKCwQQ

 Larry King talks to Assange and the founder of WikiLeaks and Ellsberg the man who leaked the "Pentagon Papers" during the Vietnam War and questions the responsibility of WikiLeaks about putting American lives in danger. Ellsberg claims that there should have been leaks of information on the illegal Iraq war; he believes WikiLeaks is a media organization while King questions the danger of the leaked material.

20. CNN News- Hillary answer to WikiLeaks Documents [www.correct-worlds-info.blogspot.com]

Date - Uploaded on Nov 30, 2010

Frames - Tone (Negative) - Common Frames - (Unpatriotic, Hurts Diplomatic Relations)
Labels - Folk Devil

Social Actor - Media, Politician

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XKWyJvardhs

Clinton calls the document dumping endangering American lives and damaging vital world relations that American security depends upon. She calls the dumping ‘illegal’ and calls the material ‘stolen’. The WikiLeaks documents have claimed many things including that Hillary Clinton herself has been involved in espionage. Clinton calls the dumping an attack on ‘economic prosperity and the world’.

21.  Newest WikiLeaks Release 7/25/2010 [CNN News Coverage Clip 1 of 4]

Date - Uploaded on Jul 26, 2010

Frames - Tone (Neutral) - Common Frames (Transparency, Corruption)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media, Politician

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tRrBd0C0nbw

John King hosts interview with Dennis Kucinich and congressman Rogers who disagree about the WikiLeaks dumping of information. Kucinich believes that this information further proves that the wars cost too much money, and that corruption runs wild in the wars. Rogers says we must stay the course and that we have to fight the enemies trying to kill American soldiers. Rodgers thinks that WikiLeaks dumping is criminal and illegal Kucinich believes “the truth shall set us free”.

 

22. 'Red alert' for WikiLeaks founder - CNN - Truveo Video Search.mp4

Date - Uploaded on Dec 3, 2010

Frames - Tone (Neutral) - Common Frame (Transparency)
Labels - None

Social Actor - Media, Law Makers

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2xikMQZEuD8

This video clip is on the release of documents by WikiLeaks; King highlights the State Department vs. The Pentagon in the blame game concerning the WikiLeaks document dumping. The departments play down this theory and claim that Manning and Assange have committed crimes, and the departments will make steps to make sure this never happens again.

23. WikiLeaks now storing files in 'James_Bond' bunker - CNN Video

Date - Uploaded on Dec 4, 2010

Frames - Tone (Neutral) - Common Frames (Security, Hackers)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media,

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hMUey7Zt2u0

WikiLeaks now storing files in bomb safe ‘James Bond' bunker with conference room and backup power trying to solve data security breaches. WikiLeaks storing files in 'James Bond' bunker to protect its rights of free speech and hackers from stealing information.

24. CNN: WikiLeaks 'Anonymous' hackers: 'We will fight'

Date - Uploaded on Dec 11, 2010

Frames - Tone (Positive) - Common Frames (Transparency, Political Target, Hackers)
Labels - None

Social Actor - Media, Public

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FVq7N54wIqs

The talk centers on if WikiLeaks is a journalistic organization and why other media outlets are leaving WikiLeaks out to dry. The conversation goes to supporters of Wikileaks fighting back at corporations that won’t conduct business with WikiLeaks. The news anchor seems extremely sympathetic towards Visa, Pay Pal and Amazon but not necessarily towards the freedom of the press or the thought of hacking against corporations who want to hide the truth.

25. CNN: WikiLeaks doc. reveals a lack of trust between the Middle East and Iran

Date - Uploaded on November 2010

Frames - Tone (Neutral) - Common Frames (Hurts Diplomatic Relations, Transparency)
Labels - None

Social Actor - Media,

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jcr0Vg-0dUM

Brian Todd reports on the documents released by WikiLeaks that show a lack of trust between the Middle East and Iran. Countries in the Middle East don’t trust Iran and encourage America to not believe anything that comes from Iran and encourage a United States attack on Iran.

26. CNN Newsroom: CNN: New leaks in 'public's interest'

Date - Uploaded on Release: Nov 28, 2010

Frames - Tone (Neutral) - Common Frames (Transparency, Freedom of Press)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QQrivI74ONU

The editor of the Guardian in England explains why the newspaper published WikiLeaks documents and tells why they removed names from the documents they released and that they only published things that they vetted that would shed light on the truth.

27. WikiLeaks Collateral Murder Wolf Reports CNN

Date - Uploaded on Apr 25, 2010

Frames - Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Transparency)
Labels - Folk Devil
Social Actor - Media, Law Enforcers

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sEz1ElGKTKs

Wolf Blitzer reports on WikiLeaks video that shows death of journalist and his driver in Iraq and asking for permission to engage in military action. The Pentagon sent a spokesperson but this video was cut short by CNN and many people are claiming this further gives credit to what WikiLeaks is claiming and that is that the American government is not telling the truth to the American people “shame on them for not showing the entire video, or for showing it at all? Journalism is about transparency and information”.

28. CNN: Vets view of WikiLeaks docs

Date - Uploaded by CNN on Jul 30, 2010

Frames - Tone (Neutral) - Common Frames (Transparency, Security)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media, Public

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-BXLi8YzimE

CNN's Atika Shubert talks to soldiers to get their view on the WikiLeaks release of Afghan war documents. Most claim that the documents were not big secrets that many people knew this information however whoever did this leaking knew they were doing wrong and should be held responsible however troops on the ground won’t be affected at all from the WikiLeaks dumping.

29. Deanna Zandt speaks about WikiLeaks

Date - Uploaded on Dec 15, 2010

Frames - Tone (Neutral) - Common Frames - (Transparency, Constitutional)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KCrX6KKg1rA

Media consultant Deanna Zandt on CNN International talks about WikiLeaks relation to the free press and freedom of speech. She comments on the affects that Assange is having on WikiLeaks as an organization and the internet being protected under freedom of speech and corporations running a public space.

30. Larry King Live: CNN: Should secret documents be made public?

Date - Uploaded on Nov 29, 2010

Frames - Tone (Neutral) - Common Frames (Transparency, Foreign Policy, Killing Americans)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=07vsUsr1cWg

Officials disagree on WikiLeaks' release of thousands of leaked documents Larry King moderates the conversation that centers around the freedom of the press, leaks damaging U.S. foreign policy, lives and credibility.

Final Results

1) Media: 18

2) Folk Devils: 6

3) Public: 3

4) Politicians: 3

5) Law Makers: 0

Tone

Positive – 4, Neutral – 17, Negative – 9

The majority of the coverage I classified into the Media category (18) because I found them to be articulating on WikiLeaks pertaining whether the internet was part of the media, the freedom of press, transparency, endangering lives, legal aspects and diplomatic relations. Second was the Folk Devil category (6) because of labeling WikiLeaks, Manning and Assange as terrorists and as a threat to American lives and society. The Politician category and the Public category were tied (3) I found that they weigh in on the situation but had different views towards WikiLeaks that lead to different frames. I found none to fit into the law maker category because they normally fit better in a different category. Overall CNN coverage mainly took a neutral stance and tone towards the coverage on WikiLeaks. Analyzing the data pertaining to the tone, folk devil category, social actor’s category and frames within frames I believe that the coverage of WikiLeaks by CNN didn’t provide what could constitute a moral panic.

Positively Framed Articles included frames within frames and consisted of:

- Transparency - Leaks ensure transparent dealings between governments.

- Hurts American Enemies- Leak of diplomatic cables hurts North Korea, Iran.

- Freedom of the Press and Speech.

Negatively Framed Articles included frames within frames and consisted of:

-Hubris/Ego - Assange and subordinates do it to make themselves look important.

-Unpatriotic- Un-American - Damages national security, American way of life and culture.

-Rapist/Sexual Deviant - Focuses on seedy details of allegations against Assange

-Hacker - Characterizes WikiLeaks as hacker organization.

- Hurts America, Americans and its Allies.

Study Limitations:

             Because of the limited information this study represents, a better, more precise understanding of the media requires more information and better methods of research that could include:

1: The number of active clips available.

2: The amount of traffic and volume each clip receives.

3: Who finances, maintains, and controls to the media station.

4: A better understanding of what constitutes the depiction of a folk devil.

5: Looking further into the frames within the frames.

6: Checking better for inconsistency in data sampling.

            Is it representative of all media?

            Right vs. Left discrepancies?

            What media have we left out?

7: How much influence does each media source have over public opinion?

            For example, how many people read a certain article or watched a specific television program?  If the public doesn’t watch it, they are not influenced; therefore, definitional dictated, moral panic is impossible. On the other hand, if the volume of viewers a program receives greatly exceeds other similar programs, the influence it has on the general public would be substantially heightened.

8. How does the coverage of WikiLeaks compare to other issues and topics?

            How does that WikiLeaks coverage compare to other topics of interest?  The influence a topic has on the public positively correlates with the amount of coverage it receives, otherwise, the theoretical foundations that a moral panic is built on crumble.

9. Only listing the Dominant Social Actor

            Who is depicting WikiLeaks as a social actor?

            Where are the media sources getting their information?

            Each article has potential to represent an aspect of every social actor. For example, CNN (Media) cites Joe Biden (Vice President - Politician) who claims WikiLeaks is a threat to the safety of our country (Folk Devil).  As a result, Biden states that they are weighing the prospects criminal action.  This is followed up with an interview of a prosecutor (Law Enforcer) who is questioned on the validity of criminalizing WikiLeaks for leaking the cables while a million people (public) watched the program.  All of the social actors are present in this illustration, and they all could be taken into account.

References

Bonn, Scott A. (2010). Mass Deception: Moral Panic and the U.S. War on Iraq. Rutgers University Press: New Jersey.

Cohen, S. (1972). Folk devils and moral panics: The creation of the mods and rockers. MacGibbon & Kee: London.

 

Fox News

This is the breakdown of WikiLeaks coverage on Fox News (30 picked randomly) between spring 2010 till April 2011. The title is first followed by the date of the coverage, then the frames (tone) - common frames used, followed by the label (folk devil if it applied), social actors, then the web site where the video can be seen, and a small review and/or comments by viewers of the coverage. The media collected was then separated into five categories based on the dominant social actor portrayed but when coverage could be put in more than one frame or by more than one social actor I put it in the dominate frame or social actor which is listed first. I gave more prevalence to folk devil category when politicians or the media would label them negatively as evil (terrorist, treasonous) and a threat to Americans and American ideals. 1. WikiLeaks Exposes Fox News White House Connection?           

Date - July-26-2010
Frames - Tone (Neutral) - Common Frames (Transparency, Endangering Lives)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=snKK420MYsI

The main media starts wondering what the white House knew and when concerning the dumping of information by WikiLeaks. White House and Military says WikiLeaks puts American soldiers in danger. Assange says some leaks prove war crimes have been committed by America. WikiLeaks Exposes how Fox News is Reporting the WikiLeaks Afghan Story (Did they follow Obama's request on how to report it)?  Biggest release of classified information far more then Danny Esinburg, Assange says there have been war crimes discovered by leaks documents cover change strategy in Afghanistan.

2. FOX news kisses WikiLeaks Julian Assange

 Date - 12-08-2010
Frames -Tone (Neutral) - Common Frames (Traitor, Transparency, Political Target)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WZseDPPrz9w

Assange claims his only agenda is the truth and he’s not a cybercriminal but a seeker of truth and that he and WikiLeaks are part of the media, comparing himself to Daniel Ellsburg (pentagon papers) others say he’s running from sex crimes.

3. WikiLeaks Founder a Terrorist Fox News Video Fox News com

 Date - 12 - 2 - 2010
Frames - Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Traitor, Rapist, Terrorist, Unpatriotic)
Labels - Folk Devil
Social Actor - Media, Politician

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cn-MOfUyAGo

Hannity speaks about what should happen to WikiLeaks and Assange and does his usual ranted and raven over WikiLeaks. Hannity and Ann Coulter talking bad about WikiLeaks Social Actor Sara Palin as saying “we should go after Assange like Al Queda  and the Taliban leaders”. Coulter claims “America is helpless pitiful giant with Democrats in the White House” and claims WikiLeaks is harming national security committing crimes say America under democrats is helpless pitiful giant. They talk bad about Private Manning being poster boy for don’t ask don’t tell.

4. WikiLeaks Founder in contact with Obama admin. Before leaks

Date - Uploaded on Jul 28, 2010
Frames -Tone (Neutral) - Common Frames (Traitor, Transparency, Political Target)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t_0fU7SYqoI

Julian Assange, founder of WikiLeaks talk with Judge Napolitano of Fox News about how the leaks may lead to civilian and American deaths. The judge asks Assange if he’s responsible for causing American soldiers getting killed. Assange replied that he was in contact with the White House before the leaks were posted and asked them to review it. Subsequently Fox News discovered that Assange tried to reach the W.H. through the New York Times, but the message never got through the Judge runs through the legal aspects of the case.

5. GetUp! - WikiLeaks on O'Reilly Factor - 7.30 Reports

Date - 12-14- 2010
Frames - Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Traitor, Terrorist, Transparency)
Labels - Folk Devil
Social Actor - Media, Public

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HKnw-V5fjBI

One on panel says Assange should be treated fairly he’s an Australian citizen, however rest of Fox panel thinks WikiLeaks has no right to publish information he should be killed, executed, assassinated jailed says he’s a cyber terrorist, sabotage, espionage and terrorist.

6. Hannity Only Interested In How WikiLeaks Could Damage Obama

Date - November - 29 - 2010
Frames – Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Traitor, Transparency)
Labels - None
Social Actor – Media, Politician

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=97mzTKBabe0

Panel says Assange should be stopped however the White House and Eric Holder are weak enforcing their authority and that they stop WikiLeaks and not out trying to lobby for the World Cup coming to America in 2020. When Democrat Bob Beckel tries to discuss the substance of the WikiLeaks documents Sean Hannity tells him he's "missing the point." The only point of the three-conservatives-to-one-liberal discussion was to use the issue to attack Obama.

 7. Senator McCain on The Hannity Show - FOX News_July 27

Date - July-27- 2010
Frames - Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Traitor, Treason, National Security)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media, Politician,

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dcZbam9Nh2Y

Senator McCain appeared on The Hannity Show on FOX News to discuss the Wikileaks scandal and Arizona Immigration news. WikiLeaks is an act of treason says Rep King, Senator McCain says WikiLeaks is ultra, left and is a breach of national security and prosecutable on several grounds thinks WikiLeaks is awful and dangerous.

8. Hannity Interview on WikiLeaks11/29/10

Date - 11- 29- 2010
Frames - Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Transparency, Hurts Diplomatic Relations)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mskg-4uI-Kw

             WikiLeaks claims in latest dump of information that top government officials reported that that “Karzi is delusional and extremely weak,” and that Kim Jong-il, is labeled “a flabby old chap,” and that Iran leader Mahmoud Ahmadinejad is like “Hitler”. WikiLeaks and Assange damaging national security, and are demonized plus Obama administration does nothing.

 9. Glenn Beck Show (November 29, 2010): WikiLeaks Questions

Date – 11- 29 - 2010
Frames – Tone (Neutral) - Common Frames (Transparency, Terrorism)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IfXu3LJ_MEU

Government and WikiLeaks is lying to you secrets are being reveled whose really involved, Beck hints that WikiLeaks is part of a bigger story and connected to terrorism. Beck doesn’t like what WikiLeaks is doing but compares himself with organization because the governments out to screw them both.

10. Fox News Glenn Beck WikiLeaks Assange Tree Of Liberty Control of Media 1 of 5 Dec 7, 2010

Date - 12 - 7 - 2010
Frames - Tone (Neutral) - Common Frames (Rapist, Transparency, Political Target)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vWYmYIx_kKE

Fox News Glenn Beck explains the smell test of the WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange's story, the friends of Assange, the Tree of Liberty, and Control of Media. Glenn talks about sexual offences (sex by surprise) and wealthy donors trying to “spring him out of jail”. Beck doesn’t support WikiLeaks or Assange but they do same thing he tries to do which is “exposing that governments all around the world have been lying to us. However he doesn’t believe the charges against him have any credibility and maintains a neutral tone towards WikiLeaks and Assange.

11. Rage against Julian Assange and WikiLeaks (Tom Flanagan, Bill O'Reilly, Megyn Kelly)

Date - 12-3-2010
Frames - Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Traitor, Terrorist, Unpatriotic)
Labels - Folk Devil
Social Actor - Media, Public

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x0Bc6p1ZjGk&feature=related

Professor Tom Flanagan called for the assassination of Julian Assange; Bill O'Reilly (Fox News TV host) called for his arrest on charges of Spying (and demanded execution or life imprisonment for whistleblower Bradley Manning - a Wikileaks source). O’Reilly refers to Assange and Private Manning as traitors and sleaze balls and are Professor Tom Flanagan, a hard-line right-winger and a political campaign organizer (for the Canadian prime minister)... said that Obama should put a contract out on Assange's life or send out a drone (unmanned aircraft) to kill him.

 12. Bill O'Reilly and Glenn Beck Discuss WikiLeaks

Date - Uploaded 12-1-2010
Frames - Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Traitor, Unpatriotic, Terrorist)
Labels - Folk Devil
Social Actor - Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6aTmde7KHA4&feature=related

The panel believes WikiLeaks and George Soros is helping Assange they believe that people that read The Nation “the 4 people” believes these readers and WikiLeaks are communist like and hate capitalism these two think they do true informing.

13. Bill O'Reilly: Why Is Obama Silent On WikiLeaks?

Date - Uploaded on Dec 2, 2010
Frames – Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Terrorist, Anti-American)
Labels - Folk Devil
Social Actor – Media, Politician

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1lT3CcVA2gw

Bill getting worked up over WikiLeaks and the President’s actions or non-actions, President Obama won’t take a stand on WikiLeaks he’s staying silent on the topic claims that the USA can’t protect its secrets. Majority of people want Assange arrested on espionage charges, he’s a terrorist” Assange’s image painted as anti –American.

14. Ann Coulter: America Is a Helpless Pitiful Giant Because Democrats Are in White House

Date - Uploaded 11-30-2010
Frames – Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Traitor, Terrorist)
Labels - Folk Devil
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E_C_xEoSn4w

Ann Coulter described what will happen to criminal WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange for leaking the 250,000 US security documents. She says nothing because democrats are in the White House and is weak and inefficient she uses negative labels for Assange, WikiLeaks and Private Manning sounding extremely one sided and full of herself.

15. Pentagon: WikiLeaks Should Turn Over Remaining Documents - 08/05/10

Date - 08-05-2010-
Frames - Tone (Neutral) - Common Frames (Transparency, Security)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zvu4Sx5EP80

Shepard Smith  leads discussion concerning if WikiLeaks should turn over remaining Afghanistan documents, furthermore the soldiers should be protected from any data dumping, however he may be safe under freedom of press.

 

16. FOX news kisses WikiLeaks Julian Assange

Date - Uploaded on Dec 8, 2010
Frames – Tone (Neutral) - Common Frames (Transparency, Journalism)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WZseDPPrz9w

This piece of news the media didn’t go out of their way to frame the news story positive or negatively which was surprising and refreshing. Respondents to this video wrote “NO opinions, NO ranting (O'Reilly must be back at the clinic or on his medication once more). Is Assange a journalist?

17. Shut down WikiLeaks - Liz Cheney to Obama

Date - Uploaded on Aug 2, 2010
Frames – Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Traitor, Terrorist)
Labels - Folk Devil
Social Actor – Media, Politician

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nhNQiJPN1W8&feature=related

Following the release of 92,000 war files, Liz Cheney is calling for WikiLeaks to be shut down and says that the founder has "blood on his hands." WikiLeaks organization is getting painted as terror network against American Values."I would point out that although you've got the news about the WikiLeaks documents that that came out this week and clearly Julian Assange's effort was to change course for the US policy in Afghanistan," Cheney told Fox News' Chris Wallace Sunday. Cheney went off the deep end for me when she claimed America should attack Iceland if they didn’t agree with her position on WikiLeaks "I would really like to see President Obama to move to ask the government of Iceland to shut that website down. I would like to see him move to shut it down ourselves if Iceland won't do it. I would like to see them move aggressively to prosecute Mr. Assange and certainly ensure that he never again gets a visa to enter the United States," said Cheney. Liz seems to me to be the pot calling the kettle black, did she forget the illegal war her dad and Bush lied to America about? Is blood on her hands for supporting policies that puts American soldier’s life at risk in illegal wars that was meant to help corporations like Black Water and her dads company Halliburton?

18. Karl Rove Wants WikiLeaks 'Criminal' Julian Assange 'Hunted Down And Grabbed And Put On Trial'

Date - Uploaded on Aug 7, 2010
Frames - Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Traitor, Anti-American)
Labels – Folk Devil
Social Actor - Politician

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lp8a8EWiWls&feature=related

On Fox News Business Channel, Karl Rove says he wants the 'criminal' WikiLeaks owner 'Hunted down and Grabbed and Put On Trial' for endangering American, and Afghans lives. He constantly uses negative labels for WikiLeaks, Assange and encourages violence against them by the American government. Rove thinks the Obama administration should better handle the WikiLeaks mess and Assange should be captured.

19. WikiLeaks: Saudi Arabia royal families held "wild parties" - FoxNews 101208

Date - Uploaded on Dec 8, 2010-
Frames - Tone (Neutral) - Common Frames (Transparency)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5qk7PyR_SQE

WikiLeaks is more than Assange; it’s a well- oiled leaking machine. Royal family had big party with liquor, and hookers which is illegal in Saudi Arabia and the Saudis asked the United States to attack Iran.

20. Was Bush Right? - WikiLeaks Supports WMD Myth

Date - Uploaded on Jan 7, 2011  
Frames - Tone (Positive) - Common Frames (Transparency)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e25cIc9PXfk

News anchor’s still claiming that George Bush was right about Iraq having weapons of mass destruction and WMD’s and that WikiLeaks proves this with their latest document dump. What's Wrong With WikiLeaks? Is WikiLeaks safe under The Freedom of the Press As one viewer said, "It's hard to finger a ghost but easy to smell a rat." Don’t know if this is damage control for Bush still, or re-writing history by any means necessary.

21. Graham Discusses WikiLeaks and Detainee Policy

Date - Uploaded on Nov 30, 2010 -
Frames – Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Terrorist, Traitor)
Labels - Folk Devil
Social Actor – Politician, Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0PTfZ77OnG8&feature=related

Lindsey Graham appeared on Fox News "On the Record" with Greta Van Susteren to discuss the most recent release of confidential information on the WikiLeaks site and he believes Assange has “blood on his hands” and he doesn’t approve of the leaks or endangering lives of Americans.

22. Newt Gingrich Says the Whole WikiLeaks Thing Is "Stupid

Date - Uploaded on Dec 5, 2010 -
Frames – Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Traitor, Transparency)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Politician

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mB-dS2STR6s

Gingrich negatively labels Assange and says Julian Assange should be treated as a terrorist, an enemy combatant. Furthermore, “how do you have a system so stupid?" That the system doesn’t account for times when millions of classified information is downloaded.

23. Outrage over WikiLeaks: "Kill Julian Assange!"

Date - Uploaded on Dec 12, 2010
Frames - Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Traitor, Terrorist, Rapist)
Labels - Folk Devil
Social Actor – Politicians, Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8FGEDJ0Mxbk&feature=related

Bill O'Reilly, Mitch McConell, Newt Gingrich, Bob Beckel outraged over WikiLeaks and Julian Assange all take turns trying to frame WikiLeaks and Assange as anti- American and they promote a military attack on Assange.

O'Reilly: I'd like to see a little drone hit Julian Assange. I think he is a bad man. If he lived in Britain 007 would take care of him.
McConell: I think the man is a terrorist and needs to be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law and if this becomes a problem you need to change the law.
Gingrich: Julian Assange is engaged in terrorism. He should be treated as an enemy combatant. WikiLeaks should be closed down permanently and decisively.
Beckel: I am not for the death penalty and if I am not for the death penalty, how do I want to do it? Illegally shoot the son of a bitch.

24. Julian Assange Could Get The Death Penalty! Former U.S. Attorney General

Date - December 11, 2010  
Frames - Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Traitor, Terrorist)
Labels - Folk Devil
Social Actor – Law Enforcement, Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SECvdsCfa1E&feature=related

Assange trying to get framed as Anti-American and dangerous to the values America holds sacred. The government should be looking into Espionage Act 1917; however it’s never been used against a publisher.

25. Christine O'Donnell - WikiLeaks' Assange An Enemy Of The State, A Virtual WMD

Date - December 01, 2010
Frames – Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Traitor, Anti - American)
Labels - Folk Devil
Social Actor - Politician

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YWuA9EQaBss

Former Senate candidate rates president's proposal she says it breach of security, “Assange is an ego maniac, a treasonous and is threatening American lives and way of Life”. O’Donnell doesn’t feel WikiLeaks is protected as media agent and brings life to the camera as she always does getting her views across no matter what.

25. Fox News WikiLeaks Distraction of the Day: Hillary Clinton Chapter

Date - Uploaded on Dec 1, 2010
Frames - Tone (Neutral) - Common Frames (Transparency, Legal)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AEDQFV9Wsqc

Panel discusses Hillary Clinton and how she’s spinning WikiLeaks information to her advantage. You know a right-wing accusation has to be off the wall when Sean Hannity sounds skeptical. That's what happened when Dick Morris theorized that the WikiLeaks documents suggest Hillary Clinton was trying to blackmail foreign diplomats and heads of state. Clinton using her old methods can't teach an old dog new trick, she doing same as what she did with the lady’s that fooled around with her husband when he was President. Does WikiLeaks safe under freedom of the press?

26. Deneen Borelli of Project 21 on WikiLeaks, Obama's Struggling

Date - Uploaded on Aug 9, 2010
Frames - Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (National Security)
Labels - Folk Devil
Social Actor - Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WQLkHAQwu5M

Deneen Borelli talks about the national security implications of the posting of sensitive military files on the WikiLeaks web site and the criminal charges that could be facing site owner Julian Assange. The Panel seems to all be convinced that Assange is a terrorist and don’t care about the truth of the WikiLeaks files being shared. Switching topics, Deneen comments on President Obama once again trying to blame the problems of his policies on the long-gone Bush Administration — noting that the only cards Obama seems to have left are the "Bush card" and the "race card." Deneen is joined by pollster Doug Schoen, National Review editor Rich Lowry and guest host Liz Cheney on the 8/6/10 edition of the Fox News Channel's "Hannity." ‘Assange a terrorist, throw the book at him, we’re at war with Assange he should be convicted of treason’.

27. WikiLeaks Simplified

Date - Uploaded on Dec 13, 2010
Frames - Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Traitor/Rapist/So on)
Labels - None
Social Actor -Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cpjV--1gN10

Director of International Operations Jordan Sekulow recently appeared on Fox News' America's News HQ to discuss WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange current predicament. The panel wastes no time spinning the debate over WikiLeaks as criminal, dangerous and anti-American. Arrested in United Kingdom, wanted in Sweden for sexual charges and the United States, will Assange receive justice? What and who else may bring charges against him? What charges (conspiracy, espionage, declare him an enemy of state)?

28. Erica Payne on FNC's Geraldo at Large re: WikiLeaks 11-28-2010

Date - 11-28-2010
Frames – Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Anti-American, Hurts Diplomatic Relations)
Labels - Folk Devil
Social Actor - Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HNCoKxiDR6o

Erica Payne discussing WikiLeaks releasing classified documents threatens Americans and their honor and that Assange is threatening American society and lives.

29. CMDR Lippold interviewed about WikiLeaks

Date - Monday, November 29, 2010 -
Frames – Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Endangering Lives and Diplomatic Relations)
Labels - Folk Devil
Social Actor – Media, Law Enforcement

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=urAmRhuNgeM

Commander Kirk Lippold appears on 'Your World with Neil Cavuto' on Fox News. WikiLeaks endangering Americans, New York Times no journalistic integrity.

30. WikiLeaks Julian Assange "If You Love Freedom Close Your Bank Of America Accounts"

Date - Uploaded on Dec 19, 2010
Frames - Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Transparency)
Labels - Folk Devil
Social Actor - Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GczCf1SxpEw

Bank of America, Visa, Pay Pal and others won’t conduct business with WikiLeaks, due to WikiLeaks sharing information on the Bank of America, who should be arrested and why? Controversy continues as the banks that heisted America calls WikiLeaks the criminals!

Overall Results

1) Folk Devils: 15

2) Law Makers: 0

3) Media: 14

4) Politicians: 1

5) Public: 0

Tone – Positive 1, Neutral 9, Negative 20

The majority of the articles I classified into the folk devil category because I found that the social actors were pushing a negative label on to WikiLeaks as I found that many people wanting to paint Assange as a terrorist, a danger to American values and lives, and as a rapist. The media came in close behind due to them articulating on WikiLeaks pertaining whether the internet was part of the media, the freedom of press, transparency, endangering lives and diplomatic relations. The Politicians category was third because as more than three politicians weighed in on the subject but they fell under the folk devil category much better because they painted Assange as a threat to American ideals more than anything else. I found zero to fit into the Public category or in the Law Maker category as there was always an aspect of the public, but the coverage normally fit better in a different category. Overall the majority of the social actors were framing WikiLeaks/ Assange with a negative tone 20 out of 30 (one positive, nine neutral, and twenty against). Analyzing the data pertaining to the tone, folk devil category, social actor’s category and frames within frames I believe that the coverage of WikiLeaks by Fox didn’t provide what could constitute a moral panic although half of the data was labeled in the folk devil category, half wasn’t.

 

MSNBC

This is the breakdown of WikiLeaks coverage for MSNBC News (30 picked randomly) between spring 2010 till April 2011. The title is first followed by the date of the coverage, then the frames (tone) - common frames used, followed by the label (folk devil if it applied), social actors, then the web site where the video can be seen, and a small review and/or comments by viewers of the coverage. The media collected was then separated into five categories based on the dominant social actor portrayed but when coverage could be put in more than one frame or by more than one social actor I put it in the dominate frame or social actor which is listed first. I gave more prevalence to folk devil category when politicians or the media would label them negatively as evil (terrorist, treasonous) and a threat to Americans and American ideals.

1. WikiLeaks & War with Iran - MSNBC w/ Cenk –

Date - 11-29-1010
Frames -Tone (Positive) - Common Frames (Transparency)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media, Politician

 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vnC-bnOMBVw-

Cenk questions if our friends in the Middle East has Americas best interest in mind. White House says leaks are reckless and dangerous. Saudi King quote “cut the head off the snake” wants USA to attack Iran. Cenk’s (media) vibe seems to be un-trust worthy of Saudi Arabia because they harbor and fund the most terrorism, begs us to strike Iran (in leaks) behind their backs, but not out in the open.

 

2. STATE RUN TV (MSNBC) - Could WikiLeaks endanger U.S. diplomacy. (Andrea Mitchell)

Date - Dec 1, 2010

Frames – Tone (Negative) - Common Frames (Hurts Diplomatic Relations, Endangers Lives)
Labels - Folk Devil
Social Actor – Media, Politician

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CqYowqzwSJs

Andrea Mitchell takes her stance on WikiLeaks as a regular viewer probably knows she’s super pro- Israel and believes these leaks can and will endanger diplomacy in the Middle East. Furthermore leaks are an attack on the international community, and the United States should use espionage act against Assange, calls private Manning a disgruntled serviceman, damaging diplomacy, Congresswomen Jane Harmanmakes an appearance as well.

3. WikiLeaks Targeting Big Banks - MSNBC w/ Cen

Date - Uploaded on Nov 30, 2010
Frames – Tone (Positive) - Common Frames (Transparency)
Labels - None
Social Actor - Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iQI-BfZiKr8

Cenk looks into why WikiLeaks and the big banks are feuding, could it be that the banks robbed America? WikiLeaks going after Wall Street as ecosystem of corruption of unethical practices, Wall Street beware, leaks on pharmacy companies, and on BP. Wikileaks makes capitalism free and ethical Ice land being called the Switzerland for

4. Jimmy Carter: "Nothing Damaging To American Security in Wikileaks